BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER 30 M1918A2

BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2
BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 




Full text of "FM 23-15 Browning Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30, M1918A2, with Bipod"
FM 23-15 WAR DEPARTMENT BASIC FIELD MANUAL BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 WITH BIPOD
FM 23-15 
BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE 

CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

WITH BIPOD 



Prepared under the direction of the 
Chief of Infantry 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: i»40 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington* D. C M Price 25 cents 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, August 27, 1940. 
PM 23-15, Browning Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30, M1918A2, 
with Bipod, is published for the information and guidance 
of all concerned. 

[A. G. 062.11 (5-28-40) .] 

By order op the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff, 
Official r 

E. S. ADAMS, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 

Paragraphs Page 
Chapter i. Mechanical Training. 

Section I. General 1-3 1 

II. Disassembly and assembly 4-12 3 

HI. Care and cleaning 13-15 19 

IV. Functioning 16-23 22 

V. Operation 24-32 36 

VI. Immediate action and stoppages.. 33-36 39 

VII. Spare parts and accessories 37-38 46 

VIII. Ammunition 39-48 49 

Chapter 2, Marksmanship, Known Distance 
Targets. 

Section I. General 47-49 53 

II. Preparatory marksmanship train- 
ing 50-72 54 

HI. Courses to be fired 73-75 81 

IV. Range practice 76-85 88 

V. Regulations governing record prac- 

tice 86-116 96 

VI. Targets and ranges. 117-118 107 

Chapter 3. Marksmanship, Moving Ground 

Targets. 

Section I. General 110-120 112 

II. Moving vehicles and personnel- _ 121-123 113 
III. Moving targets, ranges, and range 

precautions 124-125 114 

Chapter 4. Marksmanship, Air Tasgets. 

Section I. General 126 118 

II. Technique of antiaircraft fire 127-131 118 

ttl. Marksmanship training 132-136 120 

IV. Miniature range practice 137-140 128 

V. Towed target firing 141-145 131 

VI. Ranges, targets, and equipment,. 146-131 .184 
Chapter 5. Technique op Fire. 

Section I. General 1S2-154 145 

n. Range estimation 155-159 146 

III. Target designation 160-166 149 

IV. Automatic rifle fire and its effect, 167-174 157 
V. Application, of nre 175-182 160 

VI. Landscape target firing 183-190 164 

VII. Field target firing 191-196 170 

Chapter 6. Advice to Instructors. 

Section I. General 197 175 

II. Mechanical training 198-199 175 

III. Marksmanship, known distance 

targets 200-213 176 

IV, Marksmanship, air targets 214-218 189 

V. Technique of lire 219-226 195 

Index 201 



in 



FM 23-15 



BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

BROWNING ATITOM1A.TIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, 
M1918A3, WITH BIPOD 

CHAPTER 1 

MECHANICAL TRAINING 

Paragraphs 

Section I. General 1—3 

II. Dissassembly and assembly 4--12 

III. Care and cleaning 13-15 

IV. Functioning 18^33 

V. Operation 2t-32 

VI. Immediate action and stoppages 33-36 

VII, Spare parts and accessories 37—38 

VIII. Ammunition ■ 39-46 

Section I 

GENERAL 

■ 1. Object. — This chapter is designed to give the soldier 
training that will insure his ability to maintain the rifle 
and keep it in operation. 

■ 2. Description of the Rifle. — The Browning automatic 
rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, with bipod, is an air-cooled, gas- 
operated, magazine-fed shoulder weapon, (See flg. 1.) It 
weighs approximately 21 pounds without sling. The am- 
munition is loaded in magazines of 20 rounds. The weight 
of the magazine when empty is 7 ounces; when filled, 1 
pound 7 ounces. 

■ 3. Fire Power. — The Browning automatic rifle, caliber 
.30, M1918A2, is not capable of semiautomatic fire. There 
are two cyclic rates of full automatic fire, normal and slow, 
which may be selected by the flrer. The normal cyclic rate 
is approximately 550 rounds per minute; the slow cyclic rate 
is approximately 350 rounds per minute. The effective rate 
of fire for this weapon is from 120 to 150 rounds per minute, 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 



4-6 






flSiliW SJijHT tt*r.<- 







". ■ • ; S#^ 40M MMHQ NOOK 

Left side view. 

Figure 1. — Browning automatic rifle, caliber ,30, M1918A2, with 

bipod. 

Section II 
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY 

■ 4. Training. — Training in disassembly and assembly will 
be taken up as soon as practicable after the soldier receives 
his rifle. In any case it will be completed before any firing 
is done with the rifle by the individual . Instruction in the 
care and cleaning of the automatic rifle will also be covered. 

■ S. Organization.— In the company or platoon, all en- 
listed men are combined in one or more groups under their 
officers or selected noncommissioned officers as instructors. 
Other noncommissioned officers supervise the wort as di- 
rected. Squad leaders supervise the work of their squads. 

■ 6. Care To Be Exercised. — a. The rifle can be readily 
disassembled and assembled without applying force. The 
use of force is prohibited, 

b. The rifle will not be disassembled or assembled against 
time as this serves no useful purpose and results in burring 
and damaging the parts. Instruction, blindfolded, may be 
given to men who have passed their tests in mechanical 
training. In all work in disassembling the rifle, the men 



6-8 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 

will be taught to lay the parts out on a smooth, clean 
surface in the proper seauence for assembling. The trigger 
mechanism will not be disassembled or assembled blind- 
folded. 

■ 7. Nomenclature. — The names of the parts to which ref- 
erence is made in mechanical training are readily learned as 
this training progresses. Instructors will therefore take 
care to name the parts clearly and correctly in their work. 
A sufficient knowledge of the nomenclature of the rifle is 
gained by the soldier during the instruction in mechanical 
training. 

■ 8. Disassembling the Rifle. — a. General. — Authorized dis- 
assembly by the soldier is limited to that required for proper 
care and maintenance of the rifle. Further disassembly will 
be done under the supervision of an officer or ordnance per- 
sonnel. The individual soldier is prohibited from disassem- 
bling the — 

CD Forearm group. 

(2) Barrel group. 

(3) Butt stock and buffer group. 

(4) Rear sight group. 

(5) Receiver group. 

b. Sequence. — The disassembly of the rifle authorized to 
be performed by the individual soldier without supervision 
is performed in the following sequence: 

(1) Operating group. — 

(a) Remove flash hider. 

(ft) Remove bipod assembly. 

(c) Remove flash hider spring lock washer. 

(d) Cock the rifle. 

(e) Remove gas cylinder tube retaining pin. 

(/) Remove gas cylinder tube and forearm (let mechanism 
forward easily). 

(g) Remove trigger guard retaining pin. 

(ft) Remove trigger guard. 

(0 Remove recoil spring guide and recoil spring. 

(j) Push hammer pin through hammer pin hole in re- 
ceiver. 

(fc) Remove operating handle. 

(Z) Remove hammer pin. 

4 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918AZ 8 

(m) Remove hammer. 
in) Remove slide. 

(0) Push out bolt guide. 

(p) Remove bolt, bolt lock, and bolt link. 
iq) Remove firing pin. 
(r) Remove bolt link pin and bolt link. 
(s) Remove extractor and spring. 

(2) Trigger mechanism. — Remove — 
(a) Ejector. 

(6) Magazine catch spring, 
(e) Magazine catch pin. 

(d) Magaaine catch. 

(e) Magazine release. 
(/) Sear spring. 

(ff) Trigger pin. 

(7i> Trigger and connector. 

(i) Sear pin. 

(j) Sear and sear release stop lever, 

(fc) Sear carrier and counterrecoil spring. 

(1) Change lever spring, 
(m) Change lever. 

(3) Bipod assembly. — Remove the — 
(a) Two bipod leg clamp wing screws. 
<&) Right and left bipod leg assemblies. 

(c) Two bipod clamp leg guides. 

(d) Two bipod body wing screws. 

(e) Right and left bipod leg tubes. 

c. Method. — The following detailed explanation of the 
method of disassembling the automatic rifle is furnished 
as an aid to instructors: 

(1) Operating group, — Unscrew flash hider. Remove bi- 
pod assembly and flash hider spring lock washer. Lay rifle 
on table, barrel down, pointing to left. Cock the rifle. This 
must be done in order that the gas cylinder tube may clear 
the gas piston and gas cylinder tube bracket, female. Turn 
gas cylinder tube retaining pin spring (54) 180° in a clock- 
wise direction and lift out gas cylinder tube retaining pin 
(53). Remove gas cylinder tube and forearm (118). Let 
slide (45) forward easily by pressing trigger with thumb of 
right hand and at the same time grasping slide with left 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 





BK0WN1HG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 8 

hand so that middle and index fingers are astride gas piston. 
Turn trigger guard retaining pin spring- (12) 90° in a 
clockwise direction and lift out pin. Lift out trigger guard 
group. Remove recoii spring guide (41) by pressing right 
index finger on checkered surface of its head and turning 
it until ends are clear of retaining shoulders. Line up 
hammer pin holes on receiver and operating handle by 
inserting point of recoll spring guide or dummy cartridge 
in hole on operating handle with right hand, press against 
hammer pin (86), and push operating handle backward 
■with left hand. The recoil spring guide will push hammer 
pin through its hole in receiver as hammer pin registers 
with latter. Remove operating handle (88) by pulling 
straight to rear. Remove hammer pin. Push hammer (85) 
forward out of its seat in slide (45) and lift out of receiver. 
Remove slide (45) by pulling it forward out of receiver, 
being careful that bolt link (82> is pushed well down, thus 
allowing slide to clear. In removing slide, take care to 
avoid striking gas piston or rings against gas cylinder tube 
bracket (56). Force bolt guide (72) out with left thumb 
or point of a bullet. Lift out bolt, bolt lock, and bolt link 
by pulling them slowly to rear end of receiver and up with 
right thumb and forefinger. Pull out firing pin (76) from 
its way in bolt (75). Push bolt link pin (83) and remove 
bolt link. Remove extractor (77) by pressing point of a 
dummy cartridge against claw and exerting pressure up- 
ward and to front. Remove extractor spring. 

(2) Trigger mechanism? — (a) Depress ejector lock with 
point of a dummy cartridge. Hold thumb in front of maga- 
zine catch spring to prevent it from flying out and then 
slide ejector out of its seat. Remove magazine catch spring. 
Remove magazine catch pin, lift out magazine catch and 
magazine release. 

(by Insert trigger guard retaining pin spring under sear 
spring above connector stop, pry up, pressing against sear 
spring with thumb, and pull it out to rear. Push out trigger 
pin. The trigger pin must always be removed before sear 
pin in order that tension, of counterrecoil spring will always 
be an sear pin. Remove trigger and connector through top 
of trigger guaTd. Push out sear pin with the recoil spring 



3 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



guide Remove sear and sear release stop lever. Separate 
sear release stop lever from sear. Pry up on sear carrier and 
lift out sear carrier and eounterreeoil spring. Remove 




Q. 
3 
o 



change lever spring by prying bent end, out of its seat using 
rounded end of sear spring and moving change lever from 
front to rear. When clear of change lever, push it out the 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI918A2 8-9 

rest of the way by pressing with thumb against base of 
sear release stop lever spring. Pull out change lever. 

(3) Bipod assembly. — Unscrew two bipod leg clamp wing 
screws. Remove right and left bipod leg assemblies. Re- 
move two bipod clamp leg guides. Unscrew two bipod body 
wing screws. Remove right and left bipod leg tubes from 
bipod body. 

■ 9. Assembling the Rifle. — The rifle and its component 
parts are assembled in the reverse order of their disassembly 
as given in paragraph 8b. The folowing detailed explana- 
tion of the method of assembling the rifle is furnished as 
an aid to instructors: 

a. Bipod assembly. — Replace bipod leg tubes in bipod 
body so that unthreaded holes of bipod leg clamps are facing 



Figure i. — Bipod group. 

outward. Replace two bipod body wing screws. Replace 
two bipod clamp leg guides in their slots on right and left 
bipod legs. Replace bipod leg assemblies in bipod leg tubes. 
Aline U-shaped opening of bipod clamp leg guides with holes 
in bipod leg clamps and replace bipod leg clamp wing screws. 
b. Trigger mechanism, — (1) Replace change lever. Insert 
ears of change lever spring in slots in trigger guard, sear 
release stop lever spring being up and to rear, push spring 
forward into place. Replace eounterrecoil spring on eounter- 
recoil spring guide (front of sear carrier). Insert counter- 
recoil spring guide into its seat. Brace forward end of trigger 
guard against an immovable object, and with thumbs of right 



9 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

and left hands pressing on rear of sear carrier push sear 
carrier forward until rear end is held by ears of change 
lever spring. Hold sear so that slotted portion of cammed 
end of sear is down. Insert short end of sear release stop 
lever upward through slot in forward part of sear taking 
care that notched end is down. Aline sear pin hole of sear 
release stop lever with sear pin hole in sear. Replace sear 
and sear release stop lever and force recoil spring guide 
through sufficiently so as to aline holes in sear release stop 
lever, sear, sear carrier, and trigger guard for sear pin. By 
slight pressure on recoil spring guide push sear carrier for- 
ward against counterrecoil spring, thus permitting sear pin 
to be seated easily in sear pin hole. The sear pin must always 
be replaced before trigger pin in order that tension of counter - 
recoil spring will always be on sear pin. Replace trigger 
and trigger pin. 

(2) Holding connector so that its head is in rear of con- 
nector stop and toe is down and to rear, depress rear end of 
sear and drop connector into its place in trigger. Engage 
sides of sear spring in recesses and press down and forward 
on sear spring with thumb of right hand until front end of 
spring rests in depression stop. Take care to see that outside 
prongs of sear spring rest on their seat on sear and that 
middle prong rides freely in slot formed by walls of sear 
carrier. If middle prong rests on one of walls, instead of 
riding freely between them, trigger mechanism will not 
function when barrel is inclined below horizontal. 

(3) Replace magazine release, magazine catch, and maga- 
zine catch pin. Replace magazine catch spring. Insert 
ejector into recess and move it down until it is flush with 
magazine catch spring. Compress magazine catch spring in 
its seat and move ejector down until it is fully home and 
ejector lock is in its position, 

(4) After trigger mechanism has been assembled, turn 
change lever to forward position, and pull trigger. If con- 
nector will not rise, it is not in place correctly. It should 
rise and snap out from under sear. If connector will rise 
but does not raise sear, sear spring is weak and should be 
replaced. 



10 



BROWSING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 9-10 

c. Operating group. — Replace extractor spring (78). Re- 
place extractor (77) into its seat in bolt. Replace bolt link 
(82) and bolt link pin (83) with shoulder of link against flat 
surface of bolt lock (80), Lift bolt lock and replace firing 
pin (76) . Lay rifle barrel down and pointing to left so that 
rifle is resting on barrel and rear sight. With bolt mechanism 
held in a perpendicular position insert it in receiver, forcing 
end of bolt under ends of bolt supports, and then press bolt 
mechanism down so as to He flat in its place. Push bolt 
mechanism forward, swing bolt link down, then replace 
slide (45) and push all the way back. With hammer (85) 
resting between thumb and forefinger, lower and seat it 
properly in its seat in slide. Push bolt lock fully into its 
locking recess and push slide forward. With thumb and 
forefinger of right hand, aline hammer pin holes of bolt link, 
hammer, and slide with hammer pin hole in side of receiver. 
The recoil spring guide will be found a convenient aid in this 
operation. Insert hammer pin (86) to right until only *4 
inch of hammer pin protrudes from receiver. Replace op- 
erating handle (88). Tap end of protruding hammer pin 
with sufficient force to drive it home, Replace recoil spring 
(40) and guide (41). With end of index finger on checkered 
end of recoil spring guide head, turn it until it is properly 
seated. Holding right thumb against forward end of re- 
ceiver will facilitate this operation. Replace trigger guard 
group and trigger guard retaining pin (11). Cock the 
rifle. Slide gas cylinder tube and forearm (118) to rear 
of gas piston. Replace gas cylinder tube retaining pin (53), 
Replace flash hider spring lock washer on muzzle. Replace 
bipod assembly on flash hider and screw flash hider onto 
muzzle. Test rifle by pulling trigger. 

■ 10. To Remove Fmnro Pin Without Disassembling. — To 
remove firing pin, lay rifle on table, barrel down, muzzle to 
front. Remove trigger mechanism. Place rim of cartridge 
under bolt guide (fig. 5 ®). Pull operating handle to rear 
and hold mechanism back. Steady cartridge with thumb 
and forefinger of right hand (fig. 5 ©) . It may be necessary 
to exert slight downward pressure on nose of cartridge in 
order to pull bolt guide out far enough to free bolt. Push 
down on bolt link, causing bolt to break at bolt lock pin 

11 



10-11 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(fig. 5©), Allow mechanism to go forward until it stops. 
Change firing pin. Pull operating handle to rear again and 
push bolt into position (fig. 5 ® ) . 




■ 11. To Remove and Replace Extractor Without Disas- 
sembling. — a. Removal. — Draw mechanism to rear and insert 
an empty cartridge case between bolt and chamber, exposing 
extractor (fig. 6 ® ) . Lay rifle on its side so that ejection 
opening is up. With forefinger of left hand, force out claw 



-w ~^~ 




of extractor, then place point of cartridge behind extractor 
shoulder and pry it forward until extractor is free of the 
recess (fig. 6 © > . Remove extractor spring. 

&. Replacement. — Insert short end of extractor spring in 
hole in shank of extractor so that long end of spring is along 

12 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 11-12 

slot in extractor. Insert extractor and spring in end of 
bolt and push them into position (fig. 6 ®) . Remove empty 
cartridge case. 




* 12. Disassembling anb Assembling the Magazine. — Raise 
rear end of magazine base until indentations on it are clear, 
then slide it to rear. The magazine follower and spring will 
then fall out. (See fig. 7.) It is assembled in reverse order. 
(See fig. 8.) 




® 
Figuse 5, — Removing firing pin without disassembling rifle, 



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13 



13 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 




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14 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC BIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 12 




Figtihe 6. — Removing extractor without disassembling rifle. 



15 







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® With point of a cartridge raise rear end of magazine base until 
Indentations are clear to permit -withdrawal. Then slide base to 
rear. 











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© Pull out magazine spring and shake out lollower. For assem- 
bling, insert follower and magazine spring. 
Figure 7. — Disassembling magazine. 
16 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 



12 




17 



12 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 




18 



BKOWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, AT1918A2 13 

Section III 

CARE AND CUEANING 

■ 13. General. — a. Scope. — (1) Care and cleaning includes 
the care of the automatic rifle necessary to preserve its con- 
dition and appearance under all conditions and at all times. 
Automatic rifles in the hands of troops should be inspected 
daily to Insure proper condition and cleanliness. 

(2) Automatic rifles should be disassembled only to the 
extent necessary for cleaning and proper lubrication. 

b. Lubrication, and lubricants. — (1) Proper oiling is second 
in importance only to intelligent cleaning. It is a vital neces- 
sity for the working parts, but the oil should be used spar- 
ingly; wiping with a well-oiled rag is the best method. Oil 
all bearing surfaces of the rifle before firing. 

(2) If the rifle is to be fired in areas where the temperature 
is 45° F. or above, sperm oil CU. S. A. Spec. 2-45A) should be 
used for oiling when available. When not available, motor 
oil, weight 20, or any light-grade machine oil may be used 
in an emergency. 

(3) If the rifle is to be fired in areas where the temperature 
is below 45° P., aircraft instrument and machine gun lubri- 
cating oil (U. S. A. Spec. 2-27D) should be used. 

c. Cleaning. — To clean the automatic rifle, swab the bore 
with an oily flannel patch. Repeat with dry patches until 
several successive patches have come out clean. (For clean- 
ing the bore after firing see par. 14c.) Push a patch damp- 
ened with oil through the bore to protect its surface. Dust 
out all screw heads and crevices with a small cleaning brush 
or small stick. Wipe all metal surfaces With a dry cloth to 
remove moisture, perspiration, and dirt. Wipe the outer sur- 
faces of the automatic rifle, including the forearm, with a 
lightly oiled cloth, then/ clean with a soft, dry one. Immedi- 
ately after cleaning, wipe all the metal parts with a lightly 
oiled cloth. This protective film on all metal parts will be 
maintained at all times. At least once a month, and always 
after the stock and forearm have become wet, they should 
be rubbed thoroughly with a little Unseed oil in the palm 
of the hand. Rub oil in until dry. Use only castile soap 
or saddle soap for cleaning or softening the sling. 

19 



14 BROWNLNG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

■ 14. Additional Rttles for Care of Rifle. — a. Preparatory 
to firing. — (1) Remove the protective film of oil from bore 
and chamber. 

(2) Work slide back and forth several times to see that 
it moves freely. 

(3) Verify proper setting of gas pert. 

(4) Test trigger mechanism at "safe." 

(5) Examine magazines. It is imperative that magazines 
be given the best of care and kept in perfect condition. 
They should be disassembled, wiped clean and dry, and 
thinly coated with oil. Much dirt gets into them through 
careless handling on the ground during range or other 
firing. They must be kept free from dirt and rust which 
hinder their operation by making the spring and follower 
stick. Care must be exercised in the handling of magazines 
to avoid denting or bending them. The greatest possible 
care should be taken to prevent any damage to the lips 
of the magazine or to the notch for the magazine catch, 

b. During firing* — (11 Keep bore free from dust, dirt, 
mud, or snow. 

(2) Keep chamber free from oil or dirt. 

(3) Keep moving parts oiled. 

(4) Clean bore and gas system as frequently as oppor- 
tunity during cessation of fire permits. The neglect of this 
precaution is a frequent cause of stoppages. 

(5) Clean chamber frequently while still hot with cham- 
ber brush by inserting it through the ejection opening in 
the receiver. 

c. After firing.— (1) The bore of the rifle will be thor- 
oughly cleaned by the evening of the day on which it is 
fired, and similarly cleaned for the nest 3 days. 

(2) The bore is cleaned after firing by swabbing the bore 
with a flannel cleaning patch saturated with hot water and 
sal soda or issue soap solution. Repeat with several patches. 
Plain water, hot or cold, should be used when soda or soap 
are lacking. While still wet, run the metal brush through 
the bore several times. Follow this with dry patches until 
several patches come out clean and dry, then push a patch 
saturated with oil through the bore to protect its surface. 



20 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 14-13 

(3) Clean the chamber with the chamber cleaning brush, 
wipe clean with a cloth, and oil lightly. 

(4) Clean the gas system by first disassembling the rifle. 
Remove the gas cylinder. Insert the smooth end of the body 
of the gas cylinder tool into the gas cylinder. As it is ad- 
vanced toward the cylinder head, turn it to the right. As 
it reaches the head, apply additional pressure to the tool 
and give it a few turns to cut the carbon from the inside 
surface of the piston head. Withdraw and reverse the tool. 
Using the recess cutter as a gage, remove the carbon from 
the recesses at the forward end of the interior of the gas 
cylinder. With the drift point, clean the gas ports in the 
barrel, gas cylinder tube, and gas cylinder. Scrape the 
carbon from the face of the piston with the front cutting 
edge of the tool body and remove the deposit from between 
the piston rings with the drift point. Wash with hot water 
and soap or sal soda solution (if not available, use plain 
water) , dry thoroughly, and oil lightly. 

(5) Clean magazines and bipod assembly by disassembling, 
wiping, oiling, and reassembling. 

■ 15. Storage. — a. Preparation for Ion ff -term storage, — 
Automatic rifles should be cleaned and prepared with par- 
ticular care. The bore, all parts of the mechanism, and the 
exterior of the rifles should be thoroughly cleaned and then 
thoroughly dried with rags. In damp climates particular 
care must be taken to see that the rags are dry. After dry- 
ing a part, the bare hands should not touch that part. Spe- 
cial care should be taken to insure that the gas system is 
thoroughly cleaned and that the gas ports are free from 
fouling. All metal parts should then be heavily coated with 
rust-preventive compound. Then handling the rifle by the 
stock and forearm only, it should be placed in the packing 
chest, the wooden supports at the butt and muzzle having 
previously been painted with rust-preventive compound. A 
rifle will not be placed in storage contained in a cloth or other 
cover or with a plug in the bore. Such articles collect mois- 
ture which causes the weapon to rust. 

b. Cleaning when received from long-term storage. — Auto- 
matic rifles received from storage are completely coated with 
rust-preventive compound. Use dry-cleaning solvent to re- 

21 



15— IS BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1913A2 

move all traces of this compound, particular care being taken 
that the gas system, gas ports, firing pin, and all recesses in 
which springs or plungers operate are cleaned thoroughly. 
After using the dry-cleaning solvent, make sure it is com- 
pletely removed from all parts by wiping with light-colored 
cloths until no staining of the cloth occurs. The tore and 
chamber of the barrel must be thoroughly cleaned. All sur- 
faces having been thoroughly cleaned, they should then be 
protected with a thin film of lubricating oil applied with 
a rag. 

Note. — Failure to clean the gas system, the firing pin, and the 
recess In the bolt In which it operates may result in gun failure 
at normal temperatures and will most certainly result in serious 
malfunctions if the rifles are operated in low temperature areas, 
as rust-preventive compound and other foreign matter will cause 
the lubricating oil to congeal on the mechanism. 

Section IV 

FUNCTIONING 

■ 16. General. — a. Object, — This section is designed to pro- 
vide a nontechnical description of the functioning of the rifle. 
The object of instruction in this subject is to lead the soldier 
to an understanding of the simple functioning of his weapon 
without emphasis on memorizing the matter of the text. 

b. When taken up. — Instruction in functioning will be taken 
up after instruction in the disassembly, assembly, care and 
cleaning of the rifle. 

■ 17. Use op Dummy Cartridges. — The corrugated type of 
dummy cartridge (cal. .30, M1G0G) may be used for instruction 
in functioning. The use of the slotted type of dummy car- 
tridge (range, cal. .30, Ml) is prohibited. Special care must 
be exercised in the use of dummy cartridges that they do not 
introduce dirt or grit into the chamber of the rifle. 

■ 18. Mechanical Means op Functioning. — All automatic 
weapons must have mechanical means for performing the 
following functions: extraction, ejection, feeding, locking the 
breech while there is a high pressure in the bore, and igniting 
the cartridge. Operations such as extraction and ejection are 
performed by various cams, lugs, and springs, and the energy 
necessary to perform this work and to overcome friction in 

22 



BEOWNIHG ATjTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



18-19 



the rifle is derived from the explosion of the powder in the 
chamber. 

■ 19. Cycle, — a. The functioning of the automatic rifle is 
divided into two phases based on the operation of the mecha- 
nism when a shot is fired. These two phases are the rearward 



K*. 


n 




IB 


F 














$ 




J /* Hi u / o 




l\*js 5 








? 


« \ 7 


r 




I\ 


1 o - 




o 


It 


J * 

o W 


i 




T 


-L^^ 


J 



movement and the forward movement. The ignition of the 
cartridge in the chamber marks the division of the two phases. 

b. The operations which take place in the rearward, move- 
ment are — 

(V Action of gas. 

23 



19-20 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(2) Movement of slide to rear. 

(3) Unlocking. 

(4) Withdrawal of firing pin. 

(5) Extraction. 

(6) Ejection. 

(7) Termination of first phase. 

c. The operations which take place in the forward move- 
ment are — 

(1) Action of recoil spring. 

(2) Feeding. 

(3) Locking. 

(4) Ignition. 

(5) Termination of second phase. 

■ 20. Description of Cycle. — a. Rearward movement. — (1) 
Action of gas. — A cartridge having been ignited, the bullet 
under the pressure of the expanding powder gases travels 
through the barrel, and when it reaches a point 6 inches from 
the muzzle it passes a port in the bottom of the barrel. The 
barrel pressure, which at this instant is still very high, seeks 
this first natural vent. Alined with the barrel port are other 
similar ports in the gas cylinder tube bracket, gas cylinder 
tube, and gas cylinder. The port in the gas cylinder is the 
smallest and serves to throttle the barrel pressure. The 
port in the gas cylinder leads radially into a well about Va 
inch In diameter in the head of the gas cylinder. The 
throttled barrel pressure is conducted through this well to 
the gas piston plug. This pressure acts on the piston for the 
very short time which it takes for the bullet to travel the 6 
inches of distance from the barrel port to the muzzle. Its 
effect is that of a sudden severe blow on the piston plug. 
Under the impact of this blow, the gas piston is driven to the 
Tear carrying the slide with it. When the piston has traveled 
about A inch backward, the bearing rings on its head and the 
gas piston plug pass out of the cylinder. The gas expands 
around the piston head and into the gas cylinder tube and is 
exhausted through the six portholes in the tube. The gas is 
prevented from traveling back through the gas cylinder tube 
by the two rings on the piston, about % inch apart and VA 
inches from the piston head. These rings also serve as bear- 



24 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEK .30, M1918A2 



20 




3 






25 



20 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

ings to hold the front end of the piston in the center of the 
gas cylinder tube after the piston head has passed out of the 
gas cylinder. 

(2) The slide. — As the piston is forced back it carries the 
slide with it. The first and the immediate result of the 
backward movement of the slide is to begin the compression 
of the recoil spring, thereby storing energy for the forward 
action. 

(3) Unlocking. — The hammer pin is slightly in advance of 
the bolt link pin about 0.19 inch. The center rib of the 
hammer is very slightly in rear of the head of the firing 
pin. When the slide begins its motion to the rear it im- 
parts no motion whatever to the bolt and bolt lock. The 
slide moves back 0.19 inch, and its only effect during this 
travel is to carry the hammer from the firing pin and the 
hammer pin directly under the bolt link pin. At this point 
the unlocking begins, the bolt link revolves forward about 
the hammer pin, drawing the bolt lock down and to the 
rear. The motion of the lock and bolt, which is zero at 
the instant the hammer pin passes under the bolt link 
pin, accelerates from this point until the slide has traveled 
about 1.2 inches, at which latter point the bolt lock is 
drawn completely down out of the locking recess and away 
from the locking shoulder of the receiver. It Is now sup- 
ported in front on the bolt supports. The front upper 
shoulder of the bolt link has revolved forward and bears 
upon the locking shoulder of the bolt lock. These two 
influences prevent the bolt lock from revolving down below 
the line of backward travel of the bolt. 

(4) Withdrawal of firing pin. — As the bolt lock revolves 
down from its locked position, a cam surface in a slot in the 
rear bottom side of the bolt lock comes In contact with a 
similar cam surface on the firing pin lug. This action cams 
the firing pin from the face of the bolt. 

(5) Extraction. — The backward motion of the bolt begins 
when the bolt lock has been drawn down so that the circular 
cam surface on its under side is operating on the rear shoul- 
ders of the bolt supports. This produces a strong lever action 
which slowly loosens the cartridge case. The backward travel 
of the bolt has been slight, only about %a inch when the 

26 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CAL1BEK .30. M1918A2 20 

firing pin is withdrawn; its travel is about Hb inch when 
the bolt lock is completely drawn down. Prom this point the 
bolt moves to the rear, drawn by the bolt lock and bolt link, 
with the same speed as the slide and carries with it the 
empty cartridge case which is held firmly in its seat on the 
face of the bolt by the extractor. The extractor is on the 
upper right side of the bolt next to the ejection opening in 
the receiver. A slot cut in the left side of the bolt lock near 
the back end passes over the bolt guide, which supports the 
bolt lock and bolt when they are in the rear position. 

(6) Ejection. — When the slide reaches a point about ?4 inch 
from the end of its travel, the base of the cartridge case 
strikes the ejector. This action causes the cartridge case to 
be pivoted with considerable force about the extractor and 
through the ejection opening In the receiver. The front end 
of the cartridge case passes first out of the receiver and is 
pivoted so that it strikes the outside of the receiver at a point 
about 1 inch in rear of the ejection opening. It rebounds 
from the receiver toward the right front. 

(7) Termination of rearward movement. — The rearward 
motion terminates when the rear end of the slide strikes the 
buffer head and sear release. The slide, under the action of 
the recoil spring, moves forward rV inch after striking the 
buffer head and sear release. If the sear nose is not de- 
pressed, it engages the sear notch en the slide and the piece 
is cocked for the next burst or shot. 

Note. — The motion of the bolt, bolt lock, ana bolt link mechan- 
ism began slowly at first and did not attain the speed of the slide 
until the latter had traveled about 1% inches backward. This is 
a very important characteristic of the rifle, since on this account 
the mechanism is not subjected to an excess strain due to a sudden 
start at the instant the gas impinges upon the piston. This slow 
start delays the opening ol the chamber sufficiently to allow the 
high barrel pressure to decrease. 

o. Forward movement. — CI) Action of recoil spring. — The 
sear nose is depressed, disengaging the sear, and the slide 
moves forward under the action of the recoil spring. The 
position of the bolt link pin is slightly below a line joining the 
bolt lock pin and the hammer pin; therefore as the slide 
starts forward the joint at the bolt link pin has a tendency 
to buckle downward. It is prevented from doing this by the 
tail of the feed rib on the bolt which extends backward under 

27 



20 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 

the bolt lock, also by the upper front shoulder of the bolt link 
being in contact with the locking surface of the bolt lock. 
Since the joint cannot buckle, the entire mechanism moves 
forward with the slide. When it has traveled about l A inch, 
the front end of the feed rib impinges on the base of the 
top cartridge, which the magazine spring and lips are holding 
up in its path. 

(2) Feeding. — The cartridge is carried forward about V* 
inch, when the nose of the bullet strikes the bullet ramp or 
guide on the breech of barrel and is deflected upward to- 
ward the chamber. This action also guides the front end 
of the cartridge from under the magazine lips. The base 
of the cartridge approaches the center of the magazine, 
where the lips are cut away and the opening enlarged, and 
at this point is forced out of the magazine by the magazine 
spring. The base of the cartridge slides across the face of 
the bolt and under the extractor. Should the cartridge fail 
to slide under the extractor, the extractor will snap over 
its head as the bolt reaches the forward position. When the 
cartridge is released by the magazine, the nose of the bullet 
Is so far in the chamber that it is guided by the chamber 
from this point on. 

(3) Locking. — When the slide is about 2 inches from its 
forward position, the circular cam surface on the under side 
of the bolt lock begins to ride over the rear shoulders of the 
bolt supports, and the rear end of the bolt lock is cammed 
upward. The bolt link pin passes up above the line joining 
the bolt lock pin and hammer pin. The joint at the bolt 
link pin now has a tendency to buckle upward, and the bolt 
lock being opposite the locking recess in the receiver is free 
to and does pivot upward about the bolt lock pin. The bolt 
link revolves upward about the hammer pin, forcing the 
bolt lock up, and a rounded surface on the bolt lock just 
above the locking face slips over the locking shoulder in the 
receiver, giving the lock a lever action which forces the bolt 
home to its final position. The two locking surfaces on the 
bolt lock and the receiver register as the hammer pin passes 
under the bolt link pin. 

(4) Igniting the cartridge. — The lug on the firing pin is 
buried in the slot on the under side of the bolt lock at all 

28 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 20-21 

times except when the bolt is locked in the forward posi- 
tion. Therefore, the firing pin is locked away from the face 
of the bolt during all the rearward and forward motion of 
the bolt. When the hammer pin passes under the bolt link 
pin, the firing pin has been released by the bolt lock. The 
slide and hammer move forward about T *& inch farther, and 
the center rib of the hammer strikes the head of the firing 
pin, driving it forward and igniting the cartridge. 

(5) Termination of second phase. — The forward end of 
the slide strikes a shoulder at the rear end of the gas cyl- 
inder tube which terminates the forward motion. The 
forward motion is not terminated by the hammer on the 
firing pin. This can be seen by examining the head of the 
firing pin when, the gas cylinder tube is assembled to the 
receiver, and the bolt mechanism is in the forward position. 
The firing pin has still about re-inch clearance from its 
extreme forward position. 

Note. — The locking shoulder of the receiver 1b Inclined forward. 
Its surface is perpendicular to the line through the bolt lock 
which the shock of the explosion follows; therefore the force of 
this shock is exerted squarely against the normal surface. The 
speed of the bolt mechanism is slowed down gradually from the 
instant that the bolt lock starts to rise until the hammer pin 
passes under the bolt link pin, when the speed is zero. 

■ 21. Functioning of Combination Buffer and Rate Reduc- 
ing Mechanism. — a. Parts. — The buffer and rate reducirg 
mechanism consists of the following parts in the order gnen 
from front to rear: 

(1) Buffer tube, which has four splined slots on tha inside 
of the forward end for use in positioning the buf er head. 
One of these slots only is used to anchor the buffe: tube to 
the buffer head by means of the buffer key. 

<2) Buffer head. 

(3) Sear release, inserted in buffer head. 

(4) Buffer key, which holds sear release in bw: ;r head 
and anchors buffer tube to buffer head. 

(5) Brass friction cup with concave interior whic 1 is split 
to allow for expansion; and a steel cone to St intc .he cup. 
Four of these cups and cones are placed one after the other 
in series. 

(6) Buffer spring. 

(7) Actuator, inside of cups, cones, E~,rf buffer ppring. 

250606°— 10 3 29 



21 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 




© 





30 



BROWNINQ AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 



21 



H£T, OUTttH 
HttB, BUFftR 
REiCASt SEAft 



TWBE, BUFKG 
. CDF, ffttCttOK. BUFFER 
CONE, FDICTIail, MjCFVR 
SPRINS. BUFFER 




Slitve. STOCK RETAIN!** 
SPKING. ACTUATOR 
TUBE, ACIUATOf! 
CAP, BUFFER TUBS 
ACTUATOR 
OB. se 
COMBINATION BUFFCR AttOftATE REDUCING MGGHAfffMI 

® 

FJCtnte 11, — Combination buffer and rate reducing mechanism. 

(8) Buffer tube cap. 

(9) Actuator tube, 

(10) Actuator spring, inside actuator tube, 
fll) Stock retaining sleeve lock washer. 

(12) Stock retaining sleeve. 

(13) Actuator stop. 

(14) Pin. 

b. Action. — (1) When the automatic rifle is fired at the 
slow cyclic rate, the buffer head and sear release, struck by 
the rear end of the slide, move to the rear. The buffer 
head forces the friction cups over the cones, causing them 
to expand tightly against the tube, consequently producing 
considerable friction as the cups move back and compress 
the buffer spring. Thus the rearward action of the slide 
is checked gradually and there is practically no rebound. 
The buffer spring returns the buffer head and friction cups 
and cones to their original positions. After striking the 
buffer head and sear release, the slide moves forward until 
it is engaged by the sear. The delayed release of the sear 
is then accomplished as follows: The sear release when 
struck by the slide in turn strikes the actuator in the buffer. 
The actuator is driven to the rear inside the actuator tube 
against the actuator spring. It returns under the force of 



31 



21-22 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

expansion of the actuator spring to drive the sear release 
forward against the camming surface on the rear of the 
sear, thus releasing the sear and permitting the rifle to 
continue its cycle. (See par. 23m.) 

(2) When the rifle is fired at the normal cyclic rate, the 
functioning of the combination buffer and rate reducing 
mechanism is the same as explained for the slow cyclic 
rate in CI) above except that the sear release is prevented 
from engaging the camming surface on the rear end of the 
sear by the sear release stop iever. (See par. 23m.) 

■ 22. Functioning of Tricoek Mechanism. — a. The trigger 
mechanism has three settings: 

(1) Normal cyclic rate (A). — When so set the sear is de- 
pressed as long as the trigger is held back, and the rifle 
will continue firing at a cyclic rate of about 550 rounds 
per minute until the magazine is emptied, 

(3) Slow cyclic rate <F) . — When so set the sear is de- 
pressed, thereby disengaging the sear and sear notch when 
the trigger is pulled, but the mechanism is SO' constructed 
that the sear rises and engages in the sear notch when the 
slide comes back again, and the sear notch will not disen- 
gage until the sear release in the buffer depresses the rear 
end of the sear by riding over the cammed end of the sear 
or the trigger is fully released and then pulled. With this 
setting, the rifle fires one shot for each pull and quick 
release of the trigger or a slow cyclic rate of 350 rounds 
per minute for the length of time the trigger is held com- 
pletely to the rear. 

(3) Safe <S) . — When so set, the sear cannot be released 
from the sear notch by pulling the trigger. 

b. The action of the trigger mechanism is taken up in 
phases and should be followed on the mechanism itself as 
the explanation proceeds. Have the trigger guard disassem- 
bled completely. Study the shape of the change lever and 
note the following: 

(1) It is a bar about % inch in diameter. 

(2) It has three shallow longitudinal slots cut on top of 
the bar as the handle is held vertically. 



32 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFIE, CALIBER .30, M1318AZ 22-23 

(3) The side of the bar Is slotted in such a way as to leave 
a little tongue of metal in the center and at the lower edge 
of the slot. 

■ 23, Setting Change Leveh. — a. Assemble the change lever 
and spring to the trigger guard. The toe of the change 
lever spring is seated in one of the longitudinal slots on the 
change lever, and as the lever is turned from one position 
to another it seats in the other slots. The only function 
of the forward end of the spring and the longitudinal slots 
is to hold the change lever in the position in which it is set. 

b. Assemble the trigger and pin to the guard. 

c. Turn the change lever to rear or safe position. In this 
position the slot is turned slightly upward, and the full sur- 
face of the bar is on the bottom. Pull the trigger. The rear 
top end of the trigger is slotted longitudinally, and the metal 
on each side of the slot forms two shoulders which rise against 
the bottom of the change lever bar. 

d. Push the change lever over to the vertical position, which 
is the full or normal cyclic rate setting. Pull the trigger. 
The slot in the change lever is now turned to the front, and 
the two shoulders of the trigger, which before engaged the 
full surface of the change lever bar, now are free to pass up 
into the slot of the change lever; also the tongue of metal on 
the bottom of the change lever slot passes through the longi- 
tudinal slot in the end of the trigger, 

e. Push the change lever forward to the slow cyclic rate 
position. 

/. The slot is now turned partially down and when the 
trigger is pulled the rear end of the trigger passes up into 
the change lever slot; also the tongue of metal in the bottom 
of the change lever slot is now turned back and does not pass 
through the slot in the end of the trigger as it did in the 
normal cyclic rate position, 

g. Observe the shape of the connector. It is shaped like a 
boot with a toe and heel. It has a flat surface that slopes 
down and toward the front from the head (sear spring ramp) , 
In rear of the head the profile extends straight downward for 
about y 8 inch, then slopes slightly to the rear for 0.12 inch 
(sear carrier ramp) . This last slope is used in a cam action 
to be explained later. The function of the narrow, flat top 

33 



23 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M191BA2 

surface of the connector is to raise the forward end of the 
sear until cammed out from under the latter. 

h. Place the connector on the connector pin and set change 
lever to safe; pull the trigger. The connector is not raised 
for the obvious reason that the trigger itself cannot be raised 
because the change lever bar is in its way. 

i. Turn the change lever to the normal cyclic rate position; 
pull the trigger. The head of the connector is raised and heid 
in a vertical position and cannot be tipped forward. The 
tongue on the change lever engages the toe of the connector 
as the trigger is pulled and holds the connector upright. 

?'. Turn the change lever to the slow cyclic rate position; 
pull the trigger. The tongue on the change lever now does 
not engage the toe of the connector, and the head of the con- 
nector can now be tipped forward. 

k. Note the cross pin on the sear carrier called the con- 
nector stop; also note that just in rear of the connector stop 
and on the underside of the sear carrier is an inclined sur- 
face sloping upward in the metal which joins the two sides 
of the sear carrier. This surface has a cam action with the 
above-mentioned surface of the connector. 

I, Completely assemble the trigger mechanism. 

m. Note that the center leaf of the sear spring presses on 
the front sloping surface of the connector and tends to press 
the head of the connector backward. Note that the rear end 
of the sear release stop lever prevents the sear release from 
engaging the camming surface on the rear end of the sear 
except when it is depressed to its lower position by pressing 
the trigger with the change lever set for the slow cyclic rate. 
Set the change lever on safe and pull the trigger. The head 
of the connector is not raised above the sear carrier for rea- 
sons given previously. Therefore, the sear nose is not de- 
pressed and hence the safe position. Change over to the 
normal cyclic rate position and pull the trigger; the head of 
the connector is raised and held in the vertical position thus 
depressing the rear of the sear. The rear end of the sear 
release stop lever is partially depressed but is still in its 
raised position and serves only to prevent the sear release in 
the buffer assembly from engaging the camming surface on 
the rear of the sear. The rear of the sear remains in the 

34 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 23 

depressed position,, the forward end being raised by the con- 
nector. This prevents a re-engagement of the sear so that 
normal cyclic rate of automatic fire continues until the trigger 
is released or the ammunition supply is exhausted. It will be 
noted from the above that the rate reducing mechanism per- 
forms no useful function when the gun is firing at the normal 
cyclic rate. The tongue on the change lever tends to hold 
the connector vertically, and the ramp on the sear carrier 
tends to cam the connector forward. The forces exerted by 
these two parts on the connector are opposed, hence the 
trigger mechanism is locked when the trigger has been pulled 
enough to release the slide. 

n. Set the change lever for the slow cyclic rate of auto- 
matic fire; pull the trigger slowly. At first the head of the 
connector rises and thereby depresses the sear nose, allowing 
the slide to go forward. Note that if the press on the trigger 
is not continued, the sear nose is still depressed, and the 
rear end of the sear release stop lever is in its upper posi- 
tion thus causing the gun to fire at the normal cyclic rate. 
If the press of the trigger is continued, the previously men- 
tioned cam surface on the connector comes in contact with 
the cam surface of the sear carrier, and the head of the 
connector is cammed forward against the pressure of the 
center leaf of the sear spring. The connector disengages 
the forward end of the sear, and the two outside leaves of the 
sear spring depress it. The forward end of the sear release 
stop lever is raised and is held in its upper position by the 
connector. The sear nose is raised up in the path of the slide 
and engages the sear notch when the slide moves back. The 
rear end of the sear release stop lever remains in the low 
position below the camming surface on the rear of the sear 
thus clearing- the camming surface so that the sear release 
in the buffer is free to act on the camming surface on the sear. 
This causes the rifle to fire at the slow cyclic rate as long 
as the trigger is held to the rear. (See par. 21b (1>.) When 
the trigger is released, the center leaf of the sear spring 
presses the head of the connector downward and bacfc under 
the forward end of the sear, and the rear end of the sear 
release stop lever is raised to its upper position by the action 



35 



23-27 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

of the sear release stop lever spring. When the trigger is 
pulled again the action is repeated. 

o. In the slow cyclic rate position, the connector stop pre- 
vents the head of the connector being tipped so far forward 
that the sear spring cannot push it back in place when the 
trigger is released. The only function of the change lever in 
the slow cyclic rate position is the limiting of the upward 
travel of the trigger when its upper rear shoulders strike the 
top of the slot in the change lever, which In this position is 
turned down. 

Section V 

OPERATION 

■ 24. General. — a. Object.— This section is designed to give 
the soldier instruction necessary for the operation of the 
rifle. 

b. Wfien taken up. — The ' operation of the automatic rifle 
will be taken up at any convenient time after instruction in 
care and cleaning (sec. HI) has been completed. 

■ 25. Use of Dummy Carteidges. — As prescribed in para- 
graph 17. 

■ 26. To Load the Magazine. — To load the magazine, place 
the wide end of the magazine filler over the top of the maga- 
zine so that the groove in the magazine filler fits over the 
catch rib of the magazine. Hold the magazine in the same 
relative position that it occupies in the rifle, that is, with the 
catch rib toward the operator. Then insert a clip of car- 
tridges in the guides provided in the filler, and with the 
right thumb near the base push the cartridges into the 
magazine. Each magazine Will hold 20 rounds. (See fig. 12.) 

■ 27. To Load the Rifle. — Press the magazine release, with- 
draw the empty magazine. Hold a loaded magazine with 
its base in the palm of the right hand, cartridges pointing 
to the front. Insert the magazine between the sides of the 
receiver in front of the trigger guard and push it home 
smartly with the right hand. The magazine can be inserted 
with the mechanism in either the cocked or forward position. 
It is, however, ordinarily inserted after the rifle has been 
eocked. 

36 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1913A2 



28-29 



■ 28, To Unload the Rifle. — Press the magazine release and 
withdraw the magazine. Let the bolt go forward by pulling 
the trigger. 

a 29. To Ftbe the Rifle.— Select the cyclic rate desired and 
press the trigger lor the length of burst desired. If single 



K _ 




shots are desired, set the change lever for the slow cyclic 
rate; press the trigger and release the pressure upon the 
trigger immediately upon the release of the bolt for its 
forward movement. 



37 



30-31 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

M 30. To Set the Change Lever Control. — a. For the slow 
cyclic rate of automatic fire or single shot, push the change 
lever to the forward position marked "F." 

b. For the normal rate of automatic fire, set the change 
lever in the vertical position against the change lever stop, 
marked "A." 

c. To set the rifle at safe, depress the change lever stop 
and pull the change lever rearward until it covers the change 
lever stop. This position is marked "S." The change stop 
prevents the accidental setting of the change lever at safe 
and at the same time allows a quick change from safe to 
either full automatic or semiautomatic fire. 

■ 31. Gas Adjustment. — a. General. — (1) The rifle should 
normally be operated on the smallest port, and this setting 
will never be varied unless the rifle shows signs of insufficient 
gas. To aline the smallest port, screw in the gas cylinder 
with the combination tool until the shoulder of the gas cylin- 
der is about one turn from the corresponding shoulder of the 
gas cylinder tube and the smallest circle on the cylinder head 
is toward the barrel. Lock the cylinder in position. If, upon 
firing, the rifle shows signs of insufficient gas, try setting the 
cylinder one complete turn on each side of the original set- 
ting. As soon as the proper setting has been obtained, the 
rifleman will carefully note the position so that he can 
quickly assemble the cylinder to the proper point without 
trial. 

(2) The larger ports are provided for use in case the action 
of the rifle has been made sluggish through the collection 
of dirt and grit or the lack of oil under conditions which 
render prompt correction impracticable. For this reason the 
threads should be kept clean and oiled and the cylinder free 
to turn. The extractor, ejector, and the chamber of the 
barrel should be examined and cleaned and defects corrected 
when possible. Under adverse conditions, and when signs 
of insufficient gas become apparent, the cylinder should be 
unscrewed one -third turn, thus registering the medium circle 
and alining the medium port with the gas orifice. Repeat 
this operation in order to connect the largest port with the 
barrel. 



38 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918AZ 31-33 

(3) Excessive friction or dirt may sometimes prevent the 
complete forward movement of the bolt. This condition may 
also be caused by the recoil spring having become perma- 
nently set or short through continued use while excessively 
hot; in such cases, replace the Tecoil spring. 

b. Results of insufficient gas. — (1) Failure to recoil (usu- 
ally due to mlsalined or excessively clogged gas port or ex- 
tremely dirty mechanism) . 

(2) Failure to eject 

(3) Weak ejection. 

(4) Uncontrolled automatic fire (exceptional), 

c. Results of too much gas. — (1) Excessive speed causing 
pounding. 

(2) Excessive heat in gas operating mechanism. 

■ 32. Safety Precautions. — a. Automatic rifles will not be 
loaded except when on the firing line and with the muzzle 
pointed in the direction of the target. 

b. Automatic rifles will not be carried loaded except in the 
presence of an enemy or a simulated enemy. Loaded rifles 
will be carried with the muzzle elevated or to the front. 

c. Automatic rifles will be carried with the bolt forward 
at all times except in the presence of an actual enemy. 

d. Automatic rifles will be assumed to be loaded whenever 
a magazine is in the receiver. 

e. Never leave a patch, plug, or other obstruction in the 
muzzle or bore. 

/. On the range, rifles are cleared before leaving the firing 
line. The automatic rifle is cleared by removing the maga- 
zine and releasing the bolt to its forward position. 

Section VI 
IMMEDIATE ACTION AND STOPPAGES 

■ 33. General. — a. Object. — This section is designed to pro- 
vide necessary instruction in the related subjects of immedi- 
ate action and stoppages. 

b. When taken up. — Instruction in immediate action and 
stoppages will be completed before any firing is done by the 
individual. 



39 



34-35 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

■ 34. Immediate Action. — a. General— Immediate action is 
the unhesitating application of a probable remedy for a 
stoppage. Immediate action deals with the method of re- 
ducing stoppages and not the cause. It is taught as an un- 
hesitating manual operation to be applied to reduce stoppages 
without detailed consideration of their causes. 

b. Rifle foils to fire. — Pull the operating handle completely 
to the rear and then push it forward. Tap the magazine 
fully home. Aim and fire. If stoppage recurs, pull back the 
operating handle slowly to determine position of stoppage, 
remove the magazine, and apply proper remedy as explained 
in paragraphs 35d and 36. 

■ 35. Stoppages. — a. General. —While immediate action and 
stoppages are closely related as to subject matter, the former 
is treated separately to emphasize its importance as an auto- 
matic and definite procedure to be applied to overcome stop- 
pages. Proper care of the rifle before, during, and after 
firing will almost always eliminate stoppages. Stoppages 
which cannot be remedied by the application of immediate 
action can best be eliminated if the soldier has an under- 
standing of the functioning of the weapon and the causes 
of stoppages. 

&. Types. — (1) Temporary stoppages have been divided 
into those found in four positions, dependent upon the posi- 
tion where the bolt stops. The position of the stoppage is 
determined by pulling the operating handle to the rear until 
it strikes the hammer pin. 

(2) Boundaries of the positions are — 

(a) First position, mechanism and operating handle fully 
closed. 

(b) Second position, operating handle strikes hammer pin 
anywhere from fully closed to a point where operating 
handle plunger pin rides over raised shoulders on ribs of 
operating handle guide way. 

(c) Third position, operating handle strikes hammer pin 
anywhere from second position to a point directly over "F" 
of change lever setting. 

(a") Fourth position, operating handle strikes hammer pin 
anywhere between third position and rear. 



40 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 35 

c. Probable causes of stoppages. — (l) Failure to extract. 

(a) Defective extractor. 
<b) Dirt under extractor. 
<c) Dirt in chamber, 

<d!> Pitted chamber. 

(e) Weak extractor spring. 

(/) Defective ammunition. 

(2) Failure to eject. 
(k) Insufficient gas. 

(b) Defective extractor. 

(c) Dirt under extractor. 

(d) Ejector does not fit up close to bolt. 
<e) Ejector binds on bolt. 

(/) Ejector has too much backward play. 

(g) Ejector bent backward or otherwise defective. 

(ft) Weak extractor spring. 

(i) Defective ammunition. 

(3) Failure to breech. 

(a) Dirt between bolt and rear end of barrel. 

(b) Primer in mechanism, generally in front of bolt. 

(c) Defective bolt lock or pin. 
(cD Defective magazine. 

(e) Piston binding. 
(/) Excessive friction. 

(SO Recoil spring too short, 

(4) Insufficient gas. 

(a) Ports clogged. 

(b) Poor fit between gas cylinder tube and bracket. 

(c) Gas leakage around piston (worn cylinder) . 

(d) Piston binding or cylinder dirty. 

(e) Gas cylinder threaded in too far or vice versa. 

(5) Ruptured cartridges. 

(a) Locking surface of bolt lock worn. 

(b) Bearing between bolt and bolt lock worn, 
(e) Face of bolt worn. 

(d) Chamber of barrel worn or pitted. 
<e) Locking shoulder of receiver worn. 
(/) Bolt supports loose or worn. 
<£/) Defective ammunition. 



41 



35-36 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

d. Reduction of stoppages. — (1) First position stoppage.— 
If the stoppage is in the first position, pull operating handle 
all the way back and watch ejection. 

(a) If nothing is ejected, change magazine. 

(6) If loaded round is ejected, change firing pin. 

(c) H empty cartridge case is ejected, examine the correct 
adjustment of gas cylinder, turning to the next larger port 
if necessary, 

(2) Second position stoppage. — If the stoppage is in the 
second position, feel for obstruction or bur on face of bolt, 
in rear end of chamber, in bolt lock recess, or on bolt lock. 

(3) Third position stoppage. — If the stoppage is in the 
third position- 
la) If due to a ruptured cartridge, use ruptured cartridge 

extractor to remove front part of ruptured case from the 
chamber. If no ruptured cartridge extractor is available, 
oil and sand nose of bullet, put it in chamber, and let bolt 
go forward. Pull back operating handle. This will usually 
extract the ruptured cartridge. Clean and oil chamber after 
doing this. 

(o) If stoppage is not due to a ruptured cartridge, examine 
face of bolt for obstruction. 

(4) Fourth position stoppage. — If the stoppage is in the 
fourth position — 

(a) If slide moved after trigger was pulled, use cleaning 
rod to push cartridge case from the chamber. If this stop- 
page recurs, clean ammunition, and clean and lightly oil 
chamber with a patch. 

(o) If trigger cannot be pulled or if the slide does not 
move when trigger is pulled — 

1. See if change lever is set on "safe." 

2. Take out trigger guard and correct fault in the 

trigger mechanism. 

■ 36. Table op Stoppages. — a. The following table may be 
found of value. It includes stoppages outlined in paragraph 
35 and others that have not been covered but which may 
occur. 



42 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



36 



TABLE OP STOPPAGES 



Position 


Stoppage 


Cause 


Kemedy in fle!d 


First posititni 


1. Failure to 
feed. 


1. Magazine trou- 
ble-s — 










a . Magazine not 


1. a. 


i J u s h m a g a - 






fully home. 




zinc homo. 


Operating handle 




b. Obstruction 


ft. 


(Jbungo maga- 


fully home. 




bet ween lips 
of magazine 
and top car- 
tridge. 




zine. 






c. Weak: maga- 


c. 


Change maga- 






zine spring. 




zine. 






d. M a g a i i i) e 


d. 


Change maga- 






dirty. 




zine; clean 
later. 






c. AT u g h z i n e 


e. 


(Jhange maga- 






tubo or lips 




zinc. 






dented or 










bent. 










f. Magazine 


f- 


niiange inap^- 






catch notch 




axino. 






worn. 








2. Failure to 


2. a. Broken oi 


2. a. 


I'hange firing 




fire. 


short firing 
pin. 




pin. 






o. Weak recoil 


d. 


Change recoil 






spring. 




spring. 






c recessive fric- 


c. 


Clean and oil 






tion. 




friction sur- 
faces and 
chamber. 






if. faulty ammu- 


if. 


Discard am- 






nition- - 




munition. 






defective 










primers or 










charges. 








3. Insufficient 


3. (i. Gas cylinder 


n. a. 


Correct adjust- 




gas. 


not properly 
udju.s1.ed. 




ment of gas 
cylinder. 






b. Has ports clog- 


t>. 


Turn cylinder 






ged. 




to next larger 
port. Clean 
at first op- 
portunity. 






i 1 . Piston binding, 


e. 


Turn cylinder 






account 




to next larger 






duty piston 




port. Clean 






and cylinder. 




and oilat first 
opportunity. 



43 



36 



BROWNJNG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



TABLE OF STOPPAGES^Oontinued 



Position 


Stoppage 


Causa 


Remedy in field 


Firrt position — 


3. Insufficient 


i. Dirty cham- 


d. Turn cylinder 


Continued. 


gas— Oon. 


ber. 


to next larg 
er port. On 
chamber. 
Glean and oil 
cliaruber at 
first oppor- 
tunity. 






c. Lack of oil 


e. Oil chamber and 
friction sur- 
faces. 


Second position 


1. Obstruction.. 


I. Extraneous mat- 


1. Feel on face or 


Operating handle 




ter or burs — 


bolt, in receiver 


strikes hammer 




a. On face of 


and chamber, on 


pin a 11 ywtacro 




bolt. 


bolt lock, and tn 


from fully closed 




6. In breecb re- 


bolt lock recess 


back to top of 




cess where 


for burs or extra- 


raised shoulders 




bolt and 


neous matter. 


on operating 




receiyer 


Remove extra- 


handle guideway. 




join. 


neous matter or 






c. On bolt lock. 


burs. 






d. In bolt lock 








recess. 






2, Faulty am- 


2. Battered round. 






munition. 








1. Ruptured 


i. Excessive head 


1. TJso ruptured car- 


Operating handle 


cartridge. 


space. 


tridge extractor 


strikes hammer 






to remove rup- 


pin between sec- 






tured cartridge 


ond position and 






case. If recurs, 


point directly 






clean and oil 


over "F" on re- 






chamber, 


ceiver. 










2, Failure to 


2. a. Broken firing 


2. a. Beplaee flrina 




feed com- 


pin protrud- 


pin. 




pletely. 


ing from face 
of boll. 








b. OthBr obstruc- 


b. Bemove ob- 






tion, that pre- 


struction. 






vents base of 








cartridge 








from eliding 








up a c ro s s 








face of bolt. 






3, Meehamism 


3. Obstruction — ex- 


3, Remove obstruc- 




wedged 


traneous mat- 


tion. 




tightly. 


ter between 
bolt support 
and bolt lock. 





44 



BHOWNING AUTOMATIC EUFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



36 



TABLE OP STOPPAGES— Continued 



Position 


Stoppage 


Cause 


Remedy in field 


Third poxitl on — 








Continued. 


i. Faulty am- 


4, Uattcrcd round. 


1. Use cleaning roil 




munition. 




to remove empty 
cartridge case 
and then-— 


Fourth position 


1. Failure to ex- 


1. a. Dirty, rusted, 


o. Clean and oil 


Operating handle 


tract. 


or pitted 


chamber. 


strikes hammer 




chamber. 




pin between third 




6. Dirt under ex- 


6. Clean face of 


position and all 




tractor. 


bolt and ex- 


the way to the 






tractor. 


rear. 












c. Defective ex- 


c. Change ex- 






tractor. 


tractor. 






d. Defective ex- 


d. Change ex- 






tractor spring. 


tractor 
spring. 






e. Defective am- 








munUion — 








soft rims on 








cartridges. 






2. Trigger will 


2. Trouble in trigger 


2. a. Set change lever 




not release 


mechanism— 


on "F" or 




slide, the 


a. Change lever 


"A." 




rifle being 


seton^S." 






cocked 


b. Improper as- 


ft. Take out trig- 






sombly 


ger guard and 






which re- 


e x a m L rj e . 






sults in 


Replace nec- 






failure of 


essary parts 






center 


nod assemble 






prong of 


properly. 






sear spring 








to push 








connector 








back under 








front end 








of sear. 








c. Defective 


c. Same as b 






sear spring. 


above. 






d. Defective 


d. Same as b 






or lost con- 


above. 






nector. 






,3. Obstruction. 


3, Extraneous mat- 


3. KeniOTO obstroc- 






ter between ejec- 


tion. 






tor and bolt. 





250606=— 40- 



45 



36-38 BE OWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

b. In the event of stoppages that are not mentioned above 
and that cannot be reduced, the rifle should be turned in for 

examination and repair. 

Section VH 
SPARE PARTS AND ACCESSORIES 

■ 37. Spare Parts.— a. The parts of any rifle will in time be- 
come unserviceable through breakage or wear resulting from 
continuous usage. For this reason spare parts are provided 
for replacement of the parts most likely to fall. These parts 
are for use in making minor repairs and in the general upkeep 
of the rifle. Twenty-round magazines are also issued as 
spares, the quantity being based on the allowance of ammuni- 
tion authorized. Sets of spare parts should be maintained 
as complete as possible at all times, and should be kept clean 
and lightly oiled to prevent rust. Whenever a spare part is 
used to replace a defective part in the rifle, the defective part 
should be repaired or a new one substituted in the spare parts 
set. Parts that are carried complete should at all times be 
correctly assembled and ready for immediate insertion in the 
rifle. The allowances of spare parts and of 20-round maga- 
zines are prescribed in Standard Nomenclature List No. A-4, 

b. With the exception of the spare parts mentioned above, 
repairs or alterations by the using organizations are pro- 
hibited. 

■ 38. Accessories. — a. General. — Accessories include the tools 
required for disassembling and assembling and for the clean- 
ing and preservation of the rifle. They must not be used for 
any purpose other than as prescribed. There are a number 
of accessories the names or general characteristics of which 
indicate their uses or application. Therefore, detailed de- 
scription or methods of use of such items are not outlined 
herein. However, accessories embodying special features or 
having special uses are described in b below. 

b. Special- — (1) Brush ana thong, caliber .30, complete. — 
This consists of the brush, the tip, the weight, and the cord 
The thong weight and tip are made of brass and are pro- 
vided with holes in which the thong cord is knotted. The 



46 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 38 

tip is provided, with a cleaning patch slot and is threaded 
on the end to receive the brush. 

(2) Brush, chamber cleaning, Ml. — The chamber cleaning 
brush consists of a curved flat steel handle to which are 
hinged a chamber cleaning brush at one end and a small 
bristle dusting brush at the other end. 

(3) Brush, cleaning, caliber .30, M2. — The brush consists 
of a brass wire eore with bristles and tip. The core is twisted 
in a spiral and holds the bronze bristles in place. The brass 
tip, which is threaded for attaching the brush to the cleaning 
rod, is soldered to the end of the core. 

(4) Case, accessory and spare parts, M191S. — This is a 
leather box-shaped case, approximately 2V* inches wide, 3Vfe 
inches high, and 5>/ 2 inches long. It is used to carry the 
spare parts and a number of the smaller accessories. 

(5) Case, cleaning rod, Ml. — The case is made of fabric 
having five pockets, four of which hold the sections of the 
jointed cleaning rod, Ml, while the fifth holds the cleaning 
brush, caliber .30, M2. The contents are secured in their 
pockets by a web billet and chape with buckle. 

(6) Extractor, ruptured cartridge, MK. II. — The ruptured 
cartridge extractor has the general form of a caliber .30 
cartridge. It consists of three parts — the spindle, the head, 
and the sleeve. To use the ruptured cartridge extractor 
the live cartridges must be removed from the rifle. The rup- 
tured cartridge extractor is then inserted through the opening 
of the ruptured cartridge case and pushed forward into the 
chamber. The bolt is let forward without excessive shock 
so that the extractor of tha rifle engages: the ruptured 
cartridge extractor. As the operating handle is drawn back 
the ruptured cartridge extractor, holding the ruptured car- 
tridge on its sleeve, is extracted. 

(7) Filler, magazine. — The magazine filler is a pressed steel 
adapter which is fitted over the top of an empty magazine 
when loading. Its method of use is shown in figure 12. 

(8) Rod, cleaning, M2. — This is a straight rod consisting 
of two sections permanently fastened together with a swivel 
joint. The front end has a threaded hole for attaching the 
cleaning brush and a slot for holding a cleaning patch. The 
rear end is provided with a tubular steel handle which 
swivels on the rod. 

47 



38 EROWMING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M191SA2 

(9) Rod, cleaning, jointed, Ml. — This steel rod consists of 
Ave sections, the first two of which, are permanently fastened 
together by a swivel joint. The first section has a slot 
formed for holding a cleaning patch and a threaded hole for 
attaching the cleaning brush. The rear section is provided 
with a tubular steel handle which swivels on the rod. 

(10) Sling, gun, M1907. — The gun sling is fastened to the 
swivels provided on the rifle. It consists of a long and short 
strap, either of which may be lengthened or shortened to suit 
the particular soldier using it. 

(11) Tool, cleaning, gas cylinder. — This is a special tool for 
cleaning the gas operating mechanism. The ends of the tool 
body may be used to scrape carbon from the interior of the 
gas cylinder and from the face of the gas piston. The drift 
which is attached to the body may be used to remove carbon 
deposits from the gas ports and from the grooves of the gas 
piston. The carbon must be completely removed, but care 
must be exercised to avoid scoring or damaging the gas 
cylinder walls or the grooves of the gas piston. 

(12) Tool, combination. — This tool consists of a steel body 
having two spanner wrenches and two screw driver ends. The 
small spanner is used to turn the gas cylinder and the large 
spanner to turn the rifle barrel. The small screw driver at 
the end of the large spanner is used for the removal of small 
screws, and the larger screw driver for the removal of the 
butt stock bolt and the forearm screws. 

(13) Wrench. — Until a special tool is designed and issued, 
a % by 1 inch double head engineer's wrench may be used 
to remove the flash hider and bipod bearing from the muzzle 
end of the rifle barrel. 

(14) Stock rest. — The stock rest is not used except when 
the Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, is used 
as a substitute for the light machine gun in light machine- 
gun units. 



48 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 39-42 

Section VIII 
AMMUNITION 

■ 39. General. — The information in this section pertaining 
to the several types of cartridges authorized for use in the 
Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, includes a 
description of the cartridges, means of identification, care, 
use, and ballistic data, 

■ 40. Classification. — Based upon use, the principal classi- 
fications of ammunition for this rifle are — 

Ball, for use against personnel and light materiel 
targets. 

Tracer, for observation of Are and incendiary purposes. 

Armor piercing; for use against armored vehicles, con- 
crete shelters, and similar targets. 

Dummy, for training. (Cartridges are inert.) 

■ 41. Lot Number. — When ammunition is manufactured, an 
ammunition lot number, which becomes an essential part 
cf the marking, is assigned in accordance with specifications. 
This lot number is marked on all packing containers and 
on the identification card inclosed in each packing box. It 
is required for all purposes of record, including grading and 
use, reports on condition, functioning, and accidents, in 
which the ammunition might be involved. Since it is im- 
practicable to mark the ammunition lot number on each 
individual cartridge, every effort should be made to maintain 
the ammunition lot number with the cartridges once they 
are removed from their original packing. Cartridges which 
have been removed from the original packing and for which 
the ammunition lot number has been lost are placed in 
grade 3. It is therefore necessary when cartridges are re- 
moved from original packings that they be so marked that 
the ammunition lot number is preserved. 

■ 42. Grade. — Current grades of existing lots of small arms 
ammunition are established by the Chief of Ordnance and 
are published in Ordnance Field Service Bulletin No. 3-5. 



49 



42-43 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 

No lot other than that of current grade appropriate for the 
weapon wili be fired. Grade 3 ammunition is unserviceable 
and will not be fired. 

M 43. Identification. — a. Markings. — The contents of orig- 
inal boxes are readily identified by the markings on the box. 
Similar markings on the carton label identify the contents 
of each carton. 

b. Color bands. — Color bands painted on the sides and 
ends of the packing boxes further identify the various types 
of ammunition. The following color bands for cartridges 
are used: 

Armor piercing Blue on yellow. 

Ball Red. 

Tracer Green on yellow. 

Dummy Green. 

c. Types and, models. — The following types and models of 
caliber .30 cartridges are authorized for use in this rifle: 

Ball, M2. 

Ball, Ml. 

Armor piercing, Ml. 

Armor piercing, M2, 

Armor piercing, M1922. 

Dummy, range, Ml or M1921. 

Tracer, Ml. 
When removed from their original packing containers, the 
cartridges may be identified except as to ammunition lot 
number and grade by physical characteristics described 
below. 

(1) Armor piercing. — All models of caliber .30 armor 
piercing ammunition are distinguished by the nose of the 
bullet which is painted black for a distance of approximately 
y 4 inch from the tip. The bullets have gilding metal jackets. 

(2) Ball. — All models of caliber .30 ball ammunition, ex- 
cept the M1906, have bullets with gilding metal jackets. The 
jacket of the M1906 bullet is cupronickel which has a silvery 
appearance. The gilding metal jacket of the M2 bullet is 
tin coated and hence resembles the M1906 bullet in appear- 
ance. The gilding metal jacket of the Ml bullet is copper 
colored. 



50 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 43-45 

(3) Tracer. — Caliber ,30 tracer ammunition may be iden- 
tified by the nose of the bullet which is painted red for a 
distance of approximately !4 inch from the tip. 

(4) Dummy. — The caliber .30 corrugated dummy cartridge 
may be identified by the corrugations formed in the cartridge 
case. 

■ 44. Care, Handling, and Preservation. — a. Small arms am- 
munition is not dangerous to handle. Care, however, must be 
exercised to keep the boxes from becoming broken or dam- 
aged. All broken boxes must be immediately repaired and all 
original markings transferred to the new parts of the box. 
The metal liner should be air tested and sealed If equipment 
for this work is available. 

f>. Ammunition boxes should not be opened until the am- 
munition is required for use. Ammunition removed from the 
airtight container, particularly in damp climates, is apt to 
corrode, thereby causing the ammunition to become 
Unserviceable. 

c. The ammunition should be protected from mud, sand, 
dirt, and water. If it gets wet or dirty wipe it off at once, 
light corrosion, if it forms on cartridges, should be wiped off. 
However, cartridges should not be polished to make them look 
better or brighter. 

d. No caliber .30 ammunition will be fired until it has been 
identified by ammunition lot number and grade. 

e. Do not allow the ammunition to be exposed to the direct 
rays of the sun for any length of time. This is liable to 
affect seriously its firing qualities. 

■ 45. Storage. — Whenever practicable small arms ammuni- 
tion should be stored under cover. Should it be necessary to 
leave small arms ammunition in the open, it should be raised 
on dunnage at least 6 inches from the ground and the pile 
covered with a double thickness of paulin. Suitable trenches 
should be dug to prevent water from flowing under the pile. 



51 



46 



BKOWNIKG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 



■ 46. Ballistic Data.— Approximate maximum ranges are as 

follows: 
Cartridges, caliber .30: Yards 

Bali, M2 3,450 

Ball, Ml 5,500 

Armor piercing, Ml 4,000 

Armor piercing, M2 4,500 

Armor piercing, M1922 4,400 

Tracer, Ml 3,450 




Figure 13.— Cartridge, ball, cal. .30, M2, 



52 



CHAPTER 2 

MARKSMANSHIP, KNOWN DISTANCE TARGETS 

Paragraphs 

Section I. General 47-49 

II. Preparatory marksmanship training 50-72 

III. Courses to be fired 73-75 

IT. Kange practice . 76-85 

V. Regulations governing record practice 86-116 

VI. Targets and ranges 117-118 

Section I 

GENERAL 

■ 47. Object. — The object of this chapter is to provide a 
thorough and uniform method of training individuals to be 
good automatic rifle shots and of testing their proficiency in 
firing at known distance targets with the Browning automatic 
rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, With bipod. 

■ 48. Fundamentals. — To become a good automatic rifle shot 
the soldier must be trained in the following essentials of good 
shooting: 

a. Correct sighting and aiming. 

b. Correct positions. 

C. Correct trigger manipulation. 

d. Correct application of the fundamentals of automatic 
fire. 

e. Knowledge of proper sight adjustments. 

■ 49. Phases of Training. — a. Marksmanship training is di- 
vided into the following phases: 

Preparatory marksmanship training. 
Range practice. 
J>. No individual should be given range practice until he 
has had a thorough course in preparatory training. 

c. The soldier should be proficient in mechanical training 
before he receives instruction in marksmanship training. 

d. Every man who is to fire on the range will be put through 
the preparatory course regardless of previous qualifications. 

53 



50-51 BROWNING AUTOMATIC KIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

Section II 

PREPARATORY MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 

n 50. Genekal. — a. Steps in training. — The purpose of pre- 
paratory marksmanship training is to teach the soldier the 
essentials of good shooting and to develop fixed and correct 
shooting habits before he undertakes range practice. Pre- 
paratory marksmanship training is divided into six steps as 
follows: 

(1) Sighting and aiming exercises. 

(2) Position exercises. 

(3) Trigger manipulation exercises. 

(4) Automatic fire exercises. 

(5) Instruction in the effect of wind, sight changes, and 
use of the score book. 

(6) Examination of men before starting range practice, 
b. When, taken up. — Preparatory marksmanship will be 

taken up in the period stated in training programs and will 
precede range practice. Preparatory marksmanship training 
can be covered in 2 training days. 

■ 51. Equipment. — a. List. — For each eight-man group — 
2 sighting bars. 
2 automatic rifles and rests. 
2 3-lneh sighting disks (fig. 14). 
4 small aiming targets. 

1 long range sighting disk. 

2 small boxes. 

1 target frame covered with blank paper for long 
range triangles. 

1 score book for each man. 

2 blank examination forms as shown in paragraph 72. 
1 D target with curtain for each three groups. 

b. Preparation. — (1> Sighting bar. — Construct the sighting 
bars from trim lumber and tin strip to the dimensions and 
design shown in figure 14. The sighting bars like all other 
equipment should be constructed so as to present a neat 
appearance. The tops of the sighting bars, their front and 
rear sights; and their eyepieces are painted black. 

(2) Automatic rifle and rest. — An empty ammunition box 
or any similar box with notches cut in the ends to fit the 

54 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



51-52 



automatic Tifle closely makes a good automatic rifle rest. 
The automatic rifle is placed in those notches with the 
trigger guard just outside one end. The sling is loosened 
and pulled to one side. The box is half filled with earth or 
sand to give it stability. 

(3) Sighting disks, — Sighting disks are of two sizes. The 
disk to be used at a distance of 50 feet is shown in figure 14. 
The disk to be used at 200 yards is constructed by pasting 
the black silhouette of a standard D target on some stiff 
backing and attaching a 4-foot handle. The sighting disks 
have holes in their centers of a size sufficient to admit the 
point of a pencil, 



Ml I0OO INCH TARGET 
CUT OUT AND 

RASTED ON TIN. 




FRONT SIGHT A IN. 
fRONT OF TAHGET. 



SIDE VIEW or 
FRONT SIGHT 



Ml 1000 IN TARGET 
CUT OUT AND 
PASTED ON 
5TIFF BACKING. 



V 



THE SlOHTMG DISC 



t2V\EYE PIECE 

PAINTED BL/CK. 



T__THE5£ DIMENSIONS WLL BE GOVERNED 
j; BY WIDTH 4. THCKNESS OF BAR. 



Figtjbe 14. — Construction ol sighting bar and sighting disk. 

(4) Blackening the sights. — In all preparatory exercises 
involving aiming and in all range firing, both sights of the 
automatic rifle are blackened. Before blackening, the sights 
are cleaned and all traces of oil removed. The blackening 
is done by holding each sight for a few seconds in the point 
of a small flame which is of such a nature that a uniform 
coating of lampblack will be deposited on the metal. Mate- 
rials commonly used for this purpose include carbide or kero- 
sene lamps, candies, small pine sticks, and shoe paste. 
■ 52. Duties of Leaders. — a. Battalion commander, — He re- 
quires the officers and noncommissioned officers to be familiar 

55 



52-54 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 

with the prescribed methods of instruction and coaching; 
supervises the instruction within his battalion; and requires 
the companies to follow the preparatory exercises, and meth- 
ods of coaching carefully and in detail. 

b. Company commander, — He requires the prescribed 
methods of instruction and coaching to be carried out care- 
fully and in detail within his company; supervises and directs 
the platoon leaders. 

c. Platoon leader. — He supervises and directs the squad 
leader In training his squad and examines the men in his 1 
platoon who are to fire the automatic rifle as outlined in para- 
graph 72. He keeps up a copy of the form showing the 
proficiency attained by each man (see form, par. 72) . 

d. Sergeants. — They assist in the instruction and perform 
any other duties as directed by the company and platoon com- 
manders. They may assist the platoon leaders in keeping 
the forms referred to in c above. 

e. Squad leader. — (1) He sees that each man in his squad 
is occupied in the designated preparatory training. 

(2) He keeps up a separate copy of the form shown in 
paragraph 72 and promptly enters the grades made by his 
men as the work progresses. He has this form ready for the 
platoon leader's inspection at any time. 

(3) He requires the coaches to correct errors. 

■ 53. Method of Instruction. — a. Men are grouped in pairs 
as coach and pupil and alternate in assisting and coaching 
each other. 

b. Correct shooting habits are developed during the pre- 
paratory exercises, and to this end the careful execution of 
details is required. Training proceeds expeditiously to main- 
tain interest. Care is taken to avoid holding the men in 
position until they become uncomfortable. Frequent short 
rests are given. 

c. Officers and noncommissioned officer instructors will 
complete their own preparatory marksmanship training prior 
to that of their men in order that they may give their entire 
attention to the men whom they are to direct and instruct. 

■ 54. Duties op Coaches. — The successful conduct of the 
preparatory exercises largely depends upon the attention of 

56 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1B18A2 54-55 

the coaches to their duties. Officers and noncommissioned 
officers are specifically charged with the supervision of 
coaches as well as of pupiis. They will require the coaches 
to have their pupils execute all steps of the preparatory exer- 
cises correctly. The duties of a coach are specific and during 
the progress of the preparatory exercises include necessary 
correction of the pupil to see that the — 

a. Sights are blackened. 

b. Gun sling is properly adjusted. 

c. Position is taken correctly. 

d. Slack is taken up promptly. 

e. Aim is carefully taken. 

/. Breath' is held during aiming (by watching the pupil's 
back). 
g. Trigger is pressed properly. 
h. Pupil calls the shot. 

■ 55. First Sighting and Aiming Exercise: Sighting Bar. — 
The instructor or squad leader shows a sighting bar to his 
group and explains its use as follows, being careful to point 
out the various parts of the bar as he refers to them: 

a. The front and rear sights on the sighting bar represent 
enlarged rifle sights. 

b. The eyepiece on the sighting bar has no counterpart on 
the rifle. The eyepiece on the sighting bar is used as an aid 
to instruction because it enables the alinement of the sights 
to be demonstrated easily. The movable target on the sight- 
ing bar enables any alinement of the sight upon the silhouette 
to be shown, 

c. He next explains the peep sight to his group and shows 
each man a correct sight alinement with the target removed, 
(See fig. 15.) 

d. He next describes the correct aim. He explains that the 
top of the front sight is centered on the rear sight so as just 
to touch the bottom of the silhouette. 

e. He explains that the eye should be focused on the sight 
picture, being sure that his front sight Is distinct against the 
target, and he assures himself by questioning the pupils that 
each man understands what this means. 



57 



55-56 BROWNING ATJTQMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

/. He adjusts the rear sight of the sighting bar and the 
movable target so as to illustrate the correct aim and has 
each man observe it by looking through the eyepiece. 

g. He adjusts the rear sight and the movable target of the 
sighting bar so as to illustrate various small errors and has 
each man of the group detect and describe them. 

h. Each man will then again be shown the bar with the 
correct aim illustrated. 

i. Each man will then be required to adjust the sighting 
bar with the correct aim until he is proficient, using the coach 
and pupil method. 




A CORRECT SIGHT 
WITH THE 
SIGHTING BAR. 
Figure 15. — Correct sight with sighting bar. 

■ 56. Second Sighting and Aiming Exercise: Alining Sil- 
houette and Sights. — An automatic rifle for each subgroup is 
placed in an automatic rifle rest and pointed at a blank sheet 
of paper mounted on a box at which a soldier with the small 
disk is stationed as marker. The coach or an instructor takes 
the prone position and without touching the automatic rifle 
looks through the sights. He directs the marker by voice 
or signal to move the small disk until the bottom of the sil- 

58 



8KOWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEH .30, M19I8A2 



56-57 



houette is in correct alinement with the sights. He then 
calls "Hold," at which the marker will hold the small disk, 
in position. The coach or instructor moves away from the 
automatic rifle and directs the pupil to' look through the 






i 



© 




^M&mmm^ 



® 

PiftWKE 16. — Position lor second sighting ana aiming exercise. 

sights in order to observe the correct aim. He then requires 
the pupil to execute the exercise for himself being careful 
to check the alinement which the pupil obtains. 

■ 57. Third Sighting ani> Aiming Exercise: Making Shot 
Groups. — a. The object of this exercise is to teach uniform 
and correct aiming. 

59 



57-58 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

b. The exercise is conducted as follows: The automatic 
rifle with blackened sights is placed in an automatic rifle 
rest and pointed at a blank sheet of paper mounted on a 
box SO feet distant. The pupil takes the prone position with- 
out touching the rifle or rests and looks through the sights. 
The pupil or coaeh directs the marker to move the small 
disk until the bottom of the silhouette is in correct alinement 
with the sights, and then calls "Hold." The instructor 
checks the alinement and then call "Mark." The marker 
immediately marks a dot on the paper with a sharp-pointed 
pencil inserted through the hole in the silhouette. The 
small disk is removed and the dot numbered. The pupil 
repeats this operation until three dots, numbered 1, 2, and 
3, have been made. These dots outline the shot group and 
the pupil's name is written under it. The size and shape 
of the group will be discussed with the coach or instructor 
and the cause of error pointed out and corrected. This 
exercise is repeated until proficiency is attained. A good 
group of three marks can be covered by the eraser of an 
ordinary pencil. 

c. A similar exercise is held during the period of prepara- 
tory marksmanship training at 200 yards with the 26-inch 
movable silhouette. Properly handled, the exercise helps 
greatly to sustain interest in the work and to teach correct 
aiming. At 200 yards a man should be able to make a shot 
group that can be covered with the small (3 -inch) sighting 
disk. 

d. Tracings are made of each man's 200-yard shot group. 
These tracings are marked with the men's names, turned 
over to the platoon leader for his Information, and shown to 
the men with appropriate mention of errors to be corrected. 

e. The shot group exercise may be continued during the 
remaining periods of preparatory marksmanship training to 
maintain interest and to secure the proficiency of men who 
require special instruction, 

■ 58. Position Exercises. — a. General. — Instruction in posi- 
tion will include the use of the gun sling, holding the breath, 
and aiming in each position. Small targets are set up for 
each position to assist the aim. 



60 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 



58 



b. Scope of instruction. — Detailed instruction will be given 
in each of the positions described in paragraphs 59 to 62, 
inclusive. 

c. General rules. — (1) AH positions are as carefully learned 
as the prone position, but the soldier is taught that the prone 
position with the bipod rest is the normal position, and that 
he must seek firing positions which will enable him to use 
this position, 

(2) To assume any position except the prone position, first 
"half face to the right and then assume the position. 




Figure 17. — Position for third sighting and aiming exercise at long 

range. 

(3) Upon assuming any position there is a point at which 
the rifle points naturally and without effort. If this point is 
not the center of the target, the whole body is shifted so as to 
bring the target into proper alinement. 

(4) In all positions except the prone position with bipod 
rest, the bipod is in its locked position (i. e., legs of bipod 
locked in position along the barrel). 

(5) The right hand grasps the small of the stock. The 
thumb may be around the small of the stock or on top of 
the stock. 



250606° — 40— 



61 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 58 

(6) The left hand is not forced forward farther than is 
comfortable and convenient in the kneeling or sitting posi- 
tion. In the prone position it grasps the small of the stock. 
The left wrist is straight, and the rifle is placed in the crotch 
formed by the thumb and index finger and resting on the 
heel of the hand. The left elbow is as nearly under the rifle 
as it can be placed without strain. 

(7) The trigger is pressed with the second joint of the 
index finger. The first joint may be used if necessary. 

(8) The cheek firmly rests against the stock and is placed 
as far forward as possible without strain to bring the eye 
near the rear sight. 

(9) Men are not permitted to shoot in the left-handed 
position. 

(10) The hinged butt plate need not be used in any firing 
position except the prone position with the bipod rest. 

d. Gun sling. — (1) The gun sling properly adjusted is of 
great assistance in shooting in all positions except prone with 
bipod rest in that it helps to steady the rifle. Each man is 
assisted by the instructor in securing the correct adjustment 
for his sling. In a firing position the sling is adjusted to 
give firm support without discomfort to the soldier. The 
gun sling is readjusted for drill purposes by means of the 
lower loop without changing the adjustment of the upper loop. 

(2) There are two authorized adjustments — the loop sling 
and the hasty sling. The hasty sling is more rapidly ad- 
justed than the loop sling, but it gives less support. The 
sling is not used on the arm when firing in the prone position 
with bipod rest. 

(a) Loop adjustment, 

X. Loosen the lower loop. 

2. Insert the left arm through the upper loop from 

right to left so that the upper loop is near the 
shoulder and well above the biceps muscle. 

3. Pull the keepers and hook close against the arm 

to keep the upper loop in place. 

4. Move the left hand over the top of the sling and 

grasp the forearm of the rifle near the center so 
as to cause the sling to lie smoothly along the 
hand and wrist. The lower loop, not used in this 

62 



58 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

adjustment, should be so loose as to prevent any 
pull on it. Neither end will be removed from 
either swivel, 
(b) Hasty sling adjustment. 

1. Loosen the lower loop. 

2. Grasp the forearm of the rifle near the center with 

the left hand and grasp the small of the stock 
with the right hand. 

3. Throw the sling to the left and catch it above the 

elbow and high on the arm. 

4. Remove the left hand from the rifle, pass the left 

hand under the sling, then aver the sling, and 
rcgrasp the rifle with the left hand so as to cause 
the sling to lie along the hand and wrist. The 
sling may be given one -half turn to the left and 
then adjusted. This twisting causes the sling to lie 
smoothly along the hand and wrist. 
e. Holding the breath. — The breath is held during aiming. 
To accomplish this, draw a little more air Into the lungs 
than is used in an ordinary breath. Let out a little of this 
air and hold the rest naturally and without constraint. 
/. Aiming. — The rifle is carefully aimed in each position. 
g. Canting the nfte. — In all positions the rifle is squarely 
held, that is, not tipped or canted from a vertical plane pass- 
ing through its long axis. It should be understood, however, 
that unless it is pronounced, this error in position will not 
materially affect the aim nor the strike of the burst. 

h. Procedure in conducting position exercises. — Following 
explanations and demonstrations the instruction becomes in- 
dividual by the coach and pupil method. Small silhouettes 
are used as aiming points. These silhouettes are placed at 
a range of 1,000 inches and at different heights so that in 
aiming from various positions the automatic rifle will be 
nearly horizontal, or standard known distance targets may 
be installed at distances used on the known distance range. 
The instructor may initiate an exercise by a command such 

as PRONE (SITTING, KNEELING) POSITION EXERCISES; WORK AT 

will. Each pupil, after seeing that his sights are blackened, 
adjusts his sling, takes position, takes up the slack, aims care- 
fully, and holds his breath while aiming. As soon as his aim 

63 



58-59 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

becomes unsteady the exercise ceases. After a, short rest 
the pupil repeats the exercise without further command. The 
trigger is not pressed, in the position exercise. Exercises are 
conducted in all positions. 

i. Duties of the coach. — In the position exercises the coach 
sees that the — 

(1) Sights are blackened, 

(2) Gun sling when used is properly adjusted, is tight 
enough to give support, and is high up on the arm. 

(3) Proper position is taken. 

(4) Slack is taken up properly. 

(5) Pupil aims. 

(6) Breath is held while aiming. 

The coach checks the pupil's manner of holding his breath 
by watching his back, 

■ 59. Prone Position With Bipod Rest. — a. The automatic 
rifleman lies down in rear of the rifle, the line of the barrel 
extending through the center of his right shoulder and right 
hip bone. His legs are spread well apart. The toes may be 
dug in for additional bracing, but care should be taken to 
press evenly with both feet. The shoulder rest fits snugly 
on the back part of the shoulder, the butt pressed firmly 
into the hollow of the shoulder. The shoulders are on the 
same level. The right shoulder especially does not drop 
lower than the left shoulder. The elbows are out to the 
sides and on the same line to form a stable base of support 
for the rear of the weapon. The left hand grasps the 
weapon at the small of the stock, wrist straight, fingers 
uppermost, and the thumb extending under the stock. The 
right hand grasps the piece just ahead of the left hand, 
thumb over or on top of the stock, the index finger on the 
trigger, and the remaining Angers curled with a strong grip 
under and around the stock. Both hands hold the piece 
firmly against the shoulder. The left hand, in addition, 
exerts a downward pressure, holding the hinged butt plate 
down on the shoulder. 

&. Some men, including left-handed men, may find that 
they are able to obtain more stability with the positions of 
the hands reversed, the right hand supporting the weapon 
and the left hand actuating the trigger. 

64 



BKOWKING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 59-60 

c. When the firer is in the correct position, the gun is 
pointed at about the center of the target. Small adjustments 
to the exact point of the target which it is desired to hit can 
be made by moving the shoulders to the right and left or up 
and down. If the lateral movement is so great as to make 
it necessary to move the elbows, the entire body is shifted. 
Large vertical corrections are made by moving the elbows 
closer together or farther apart. Elevation adjustments may 
also be made by adjusting the bipod legs. 

d. The soldier is trained to assume the correct position 
aided by a coach who will adjust the legs of the bipod for 
height. 

e. Following this exercise the soldier will assume the correct 
position, adjusting the bipod without the aid of a coach. In 




Figtthe 18. — prone position with bipod rest. 

doing this it is necessary to remove the weapon from the 
shoulder, slide around to the side, and make the adjustment. 
With training, the gunner is able to set the bipod correctly 
the first time. 
/. The sling is not used in this position. 

■ 60. Sitting Position. — The firer sits half faced to the 
right; feet well apart and well braced on the heels which are 
slightly dug into the ground; ankles relaxed; body leaning 
well forward from the hips with back straight; both arms 
resting inside the legs and well-supported; cheek resting 
firmly against the stock and placed as far forward as possible 
without straining; left hand as far forward as convenient and 
comfortable, wrist straight, rifle placed in the crotch formed 
ty the thumb and index finger and resting on the heel of the 



65 



60-62 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

hand. In this position the feet may be slightly lower than the 
ground on which the firer sits. Sitting on a low sandbag is 
authorized. Necessary changes to adapt the position to the 
conformation of the man are authorized. Instruction in the 
sitting position is limited to that sufficient to acquaint the 
men with it, as the use of this position is regarded as 
exceptional. 




Figure 19. — Sitting position. 

■ 61. Kneeliho Position. — The flrer kneels half faced to> the 
right on the right knee, sitting on the right heel, the left 
knee bent so that the lower left leg is vertical as viewed from 
the front; left arm well under the rifle and resting on the 
left knee with the point of the elbow beyond the kneecap; 
right elbow approximately at the height of the shoulder; 
cheek resting firmly against the stock and placed as far 
forward as possible without strain. Sitting on the side of 
the foot instead of the heel is authorized. The center of 
balance of the flrer should be low and forward. 

■ 62. AssAtTLT Fire Position. — In this position the automatic 
rifle is held with the butt under the right armpit, clasped 

66 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC R1F1E, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



62 




FIGURE 20. — Kneeling position. 




Figure 21. — Assault lire position. 
67 



62-64 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, JMI918A2 

firmly between the body and the upper portion of the arm, 
the sling over the left shoulder, 

■ 63. Sight Setting Exercises. — a. The purpose of the sight 
setting exercises is to teach accurate and rapid sight setting. 

b. The instructor explains the difference between the open, 
sight (battle sight) and the peep sight. He explains that 
the movable slide on the rear sight is set at the desired range 
graduation so that the gun will have proper elevation when 
it is aimed. He explains the wind gage on the rear sight 
and that the front sight may be moved to the right or left 
in zeroing the rifle when necessary. The instructor then 
has a soldier take his place at the automatic rifle in the 
prone position and demonstrate the exercise as follows: 

(1) The instructor announces the range, for example, 
"Range 800." 

(2) The automatic rifleman raises the sight leaf, sets the 
sight with the correct setting, and assumes the correct firing 
position. 

(3) The instructor checks the sight setting. 

c. Each group then performs the exercise explained above 
under the supervision of the group instructor until ah are 
proficient in accurate and rapid sight setting. 

■ 64. Sight Setting and Aiming Exercise. — a. The purpose of 
the sight setting and aiming exercisie is to develop accuracy 
and speed in setting the sights and aiming the rifle, 

b. The target shown in figure 23 is set up 1,000 inches from 
the rifle; the automatic rifleman is in the prone position 
with biped adjusted. 

c. The instructor demonstrates the exercise as follows: 
(1) The instructor announces the range and designates the 

target by giving a fire order such as "Range 300, figure No. 1." 
After giving the first element of the command, the instructor 
pauses a sufficient length of time to permit the automatic 
rifleman to repeat it. The automatic rifleman then raises 
the sight leaf and sets the sight. While he is setting the 
sight the instructor announces the target. The automatic 
rifleman repeats this second element of the command, and 
upon completing the sight setting moves his body and the 



68 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 04-65 

rifle until the sights are accurately alined upon the designated 
aiming point. He then calls "Up." 

(2) The instructor then checks the sight setting and aim- 
ing, pointing out the errors if any. 

d. The men then go through the exercise under the super- 
vision of the group instructors until they become proficient 
in setting the sight and aiming the gun on a designated aim- 
ing point within a time limit of 10 seconds. Each exercise 
will start with the sight leaf down and the slide set at 500 
yards. 

■ 65. Trigger Manipulation Exercise. — a. General. — The 
trigger is pressed in such a way as to fire the first shot with- 
out affecting the aim. The aim is held as steadily as possible, 
and the trigger is pressed promptly by a constantly increasing 
pressure applied to the rear by the independent action of the 
forefinger only until the bolt is released. The release of the 
trigger is dependent upon the length of burst desired. In 
firing bursts at the slow cyclic rate, the trigger is pressed 
rapidly to its full extent to the rear or a burst at the normal 
cyclic rate will ensue during the time the sear nose is de- 
pressed and the rear of the sear release stop lever is in its 
upper position, (See par. 23n.) This method of pressing 
the trigger is carried out in all preparatory exercises or the 
value of the practice is lost. 

b. Trigger manijMlatitm. — Trigger manipulation exercises 
are carried out in the preparatory exercises regardless of the 
fact that the men undergoing instruction may have just com- 
pleted firing with the TJ. S. rifle, caliber .30, M1903, or the TJ. S. 
rifle, caliber .30, Ml. The forward movement of the bolt when 
the trigger is pressed is confusing to many men and causes 
them to allow the ahnement of the sights to become incorrect. 
The rifle is held steady and in perfect alinement during this 
forward movement. 

c. Talcing up the trigger slack. — The first movement of the 
trigger which takes place when light pressure is applied is 
called "taking up the slack." It is part of the position exer- 
cise, because' this play must be taken up by the finger as soon 
as the correct position is asumed and before careful aiming 
is begun. The entire amount of slack in trigger is taken 
up by one positive movement of the finger. 

69 



65-66 BROWNIKG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 

d. Calling the shot. — The pupil always notices where the 
sights are pointed at the instant the rifle is fired , or when the 
bolt reaches its forward position in simulated fire, and calls 
out at once where he thinks the bullet will hit. In automatic 
Are he calls the first shot. 

e. Scope of instruction. — (1) The pupil is first taught trig- 
ger manipulation in the prone position with bipod rest. In 
this position he can hold steadily while he presses the trigger. 
After proficiency is obtained in the prone position with the 
bipod rest, trigger manipulation is practiced in the sitting and 
kneeling positions. 

(2) Trigger manipulation for firing bursts and for firing 
single shots will be taught. The Browning automatic rifle, 
caliber ,30, M1918A2, Is not capable of semiautomatic fire. 
However, by having the rifle set for the slow cyclic rate, sin- 
gle shots may be fired by releasing the pressure on the trig- 
ger immediately upon the release of the bolt for its forward 
movement. This rapid trigger release is taught during in- 
struction in trigger manipulation, 

(3) In all exercises where fire is simulated, men will carry 
out the correct principles of aiming, pressing the trigger, and 
calling the shot. 

■ 66. Automatic Fire Exercise. — a. Automatic fire exercises 
enable the soldier to gain dexterity in the manipulation of 
the automatic rifle. Efficient manipulation is an important 
factor in automatic rifle firing. 

&. Automatic fire exercises are held at 1,000 inches on 
the U. S. rifle, caliber .30, Ml, target. The exercises include 
observance of the fundamentals of sighting, positions, and 
trigger manipulation as taught in the preceding exercises. 

c. Automatic fire exercises are conducted as follows: 

(1) The instructor announces the range as "Range, 300"; 
designates the target and number of rounds as "Figures 5 
to 6, 16 rounds." 

(2) The automatic rifleman sets his sights at the an- 
nounced range, aims at figure No. 5, and simulates firing 
16 rounds across to the right. He simulates firing 2 rounds, 
traverses right to the next figure, and simulates firing 2 
more rounds, and so on until he has completed the simulated 



70 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 66-67 

firing of 16 rounds. He checks his aim each time on the 
figure on which he is firing. 

d. The duties of the coach in automatic Are exercises are 
to insure that — 

<1) The sights are set for the ranges designated and are 
blackened. 

(2) The correct position is taken. 

(3) The slack is taken up promptly. 

(4) The breath is held while aiming. 

(5) The trigger is pressed properly. 

(6) Each time the pupil completes the simulated firing of 
two rounds on a figure he promptly traverses right to the next 
figure. 

(7) The pupil checks his aim each time on the figure on 
which he is firing. 

(8) The eye is kept on the target, the elbows kept in place, 
and the butt of the rifle kept to the shoulder. 

(9) The automatic rifle is reloaded quickly and without 
fumbling, 

■ 67. Exercises in Replacing Magazines. — a. Exercises should 
be conducted in which the soldier replaces his own magazines. 
In these exercises the following points should be stressed: 

(1) When the last shot in the magazine is fired, the bolt 
being in the rearward position and the rifle held horizontally, 
the automatic rifleman pushes the magazine release with his 
right thumb and the magazine falls out of its own weight. 

(2) Pull magazines are so placed in the belt that when 
grasped and carried forward by the right hand the long por- 
tion will be to the rear. Thus they may be readily inserted 
in the magazine opening in the receiver. 

(3) Empty magazines are picked up and placed in the belt. 

(4) Each soldier changes his own magazines. He must be 
able to do it in 2 to 4 seconds while in any position. He tests 
all magazines before loading them to see that they will fall 
out of their own weight when empty. 

b. These operations are taught as a drill in which the fol- 
lowing points should be carefully observed: 

(1) Magazines are placed in the magazine belt so that 
when grasped and carried forward by the right hand the long 
portion will be to the rear. 

71 



67 EEOWMING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191EA2 




©Pressing magazine release with right thumb. 




©Reaching for new magazine. 




©Inserting new magazine. 




©Reaching for old magazine. 
72 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 67-68 




©Replacing old magazine in belt. 
Figure 22. — Drill in replacing magazine. 

(2) The operating handle is drawn to the rear after the 
last shot If the bolt is in the forward position. 

(3) Magazines are dropped out after the last shot. 

(4) All magazines to be used fall out of their own weight 
when empty. 

(5) The new magazine is drawn from the belt and placed 
in the receiver with one rapid, smooth movement. 

(6) Empty magazines are picked up and placed in the belt. 
In known distance range firing they will be placed in the belt 
at the conclusion of the firing of the exercise. 

■ 68. Windage:. — a. Direction: of wind,. — The horizontal clock 
system is used to describe the direction of the wind. In this 
system the firer is assumed to be at the center of a clock 
and the target at 12 o'clock. A 3 o'clock wind then blows 
directly from the right, a 9 o'clock wind directly from the 
left, and other winds from their corresponding directions on 
the clock. Right windage is taken to counteract the effects 
of winds coming from the right of the clock and left wind- 
age to counteract those coming from the left. The amount 
of windage to allow for the first shot is shown by the wind- 
age diagram in W. D., A. G. O. Form No. 82 (Individual 
Score Book) by substituting four thirds of a point of windage 
for each point of windage there indicated. After the first 
shot is marked, the necessary correction in windage to brihg 
shots into the silhouette is found by reference to the target 
on page 16 of the score book and applying the windage 
rule. 



73 



68-72 BROWNING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

o. Windage rvle. — One click of the windage knob (or one 
point of windage) moves the strike of the bullet 3 inches on 
the target for each 100 yards of range. Right windage moves 
the strike of the bullet to the right, and left windage moves 

it to the left. 

■ 69. Elevation. — a. Range. — Changes in elevation are made 
on the sight of the rifle for the primary purpose of adjust- 
ing for range. 

b. Effect of light. — light has an effect upon aim, gener- 
ally causing men to aim slightly lower in a poor light than 
in a good one. Slight corrections in elevation are therefore 
necessary at times for this reason. 

c. Elevation rule. — One click of the elevating knob moves 
the strike of the bullet 3 inches on the target for each 100 
yards of range, 

■ 70. Explanation of Zero. — a. An explanation of the zero 
of the Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, should 
be included in the instruction in sight setting. The zero of 
this rifle for any range under normal weather conditions 
Is that sight setting of elevation and windage which will 
center the shot group in the target. It may vary for the 
same rifle with different men on account of differences in 
eyesight. Each man should understand this explanation of 
the zero of a rifle, and that he will be required to keep a 
record of the zeroes for his own rifle for the various ranges 
in his score book. 

b. Instructions for zeroing the rifle on the 1,000-ineh range 
and on the known distance range are given in section IV. 

■ 71. Score Book. — The use by the soldier of a score book 
to keep a personal record of the results and conditions of 
his firing throughout the period of range practice is as neces- 
sary with the automatic rifle as with the service rifle. W, D„ 
A. G. O, Form No. 82 is used for the automatic rifle. 

■ 72. Examination. — a. Men will be examined prior to pro- 
ceeding to range practice to determine their proficiency in 
the subjects covered in chapter 1 and in this section. 



74 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 72 

b. This examination consists of questions as indicated be- 
low which are designed to bring out the soldier's knowledge 
of the weapon and of demonstrations on his part of his 
practical ability in the subjects which have been covered. 
The questions are answered by the soldier in his own words. 

Q. What is the name of the automatic rifle? — A. The 
Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2. 

Q. What type weapon is it? — A. shoulder weapon, gas 
operated, air cooled, magazine fed. 

Q. How is the barrel cooled? — A. There is no special cool- 
ing device. The barrel is merely exposed to the air, 

Q. What is meant by gas operated? — A. All of the func- 
tions of the automatic rifle, such as extraction and feeding, 
are accomplished by a small portion of gas escaping through 
a port in the barrel and impinging on a piston. 

Q. How is the examination on disassembling and assem- 
bling of the automatic rifle conducted? — A. (Man being ex- 
amined disassembles and assembles the rifle, naming parts.) 

Q. How many rounds are carried in the magazine? — ■ 
A. Twenty. 

Q. What care must be taken of the magazines? — A. They 
will be kept cleaned and well oiled. They will not be dented 
or bent. 

Q. How are the magazines filled? — A. By placing the maga- 
zine filler over the magazine and loading four clips in the 
same manner as in the service rifle. 

Q. How are the magazines loaded into the rifle? — A. (Man 
being examined loads rifle and releases magazine.) 

Q. Why should the accessory and spare parts kit be car- 
ried? — A. Because it contains equipment which is necessary 
to keep the rifle in action. 

Q. How is the firing pin removed without disassembling 
the rifle? — A. (Man being examined shows how it is done,) 

Q. How is the extractor removed without disassembling the 
rifle? — A. (Man being examined shows how it is done.) 

Q. What is the first thing to do in case of any stoppage? — 
A. Tap the magazine, pull back and push forward the op- 
erating handle, aim, and try to Are again. 



75 



72 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

Q. What is the next thing to do in case you have tried to 
fire again and the stoppage recurs? — A. Pull back the operat- 
ing handle slowly until it strikes the hammer pin and see 
what is the position of the stoppage; drop out the magazine; 
then apply immediate action. 

Q. What are the three stoppages in the first position? — A. 
Failure to feed, failure to fire, and insufficient gas. 

Q. What things may cause failure to Are in the first posi- 
tion? — A. Defective ammunition, broken firing pin, weak re- 
coil spring, and too much friction, 

Q. What usually causes failure to feed? — A. Magazine 
trouble. 

Q. How can you tell when the rifle is not getting enough 
gas? — A. The rifle will fire but the bolt will not go to the 
rear. 

Q. If your rifle is giving you trouble, due to failure to 
extract, what is probably the trouble? — A. The chamber of 
the rifle has not been properly cleaned. 

Q. What is this (drawing a circle on the ground or on 
paper) ? — A. A circle. 

Q. Where Is the center of it? — A. Here (pointing to the 
center) . 

Q. Suppose that circle represents a peep sight through 
which you are looking and that you are told to bring the 
top of the front sight to the center of it; where would the 
top of the front sight be? — A. Here (pointing to the center 
of the circle) . 

Q. Make a mark in the circle to represent the front sight. 
Make a small silhouette to represent the silhouette. Is the 
silhouette in the center of the peep sight? — A. No; the bot- 
tom edge of it is in the center. 

Q. Why? — A. Because the top of the front sight is in the 
center and just touches the bottom edge of the silhouette. 

Q, Should the front sight be held up into the bottom of 
the silhouette? — A. No; it just touches the bottom edge of 
the silhouette, so that all of the silhouette can still be clearly 
seen. 



76 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEK .30, M1918A2 72 

Q. What Is this (indicating sighting bar)? — A. Sighting bar. 

Q. What is it for? — A. To teach me how to aim. 

Q. Why is it better than an automatic rifle for this pur- 
pose? — A. Because the sights on it are much larger, and slight 
errors can be more easily seen and pointed out, 

Q. What does this represent? — A. The front sight. 

Q. And this? — A, The rear sight. 

Q. What is this? — A. The eyepiece. 

Q. What is the eyepiece for? — A. To cause me to place my 
eye in such a position as to see the sights in the same aline- 
ment as that set by the coach. 

Q. Is there any eyepiece on the automatic rifle? — A. No; 
I learn by the sighting bar how the sights look when properly 
alined, and I must hold my head so as to see the sights the 
same way when aiming an automatic rifle. 

Q. How do you hold your head steadily in this position 
When aiming an automatic rifle? — A. By resting my cheek 
firmly against the side of the stock. 

Q. Where do you focus your eye when aiming an automatic 
rifle? — A. On the silhouette. 

Q. Tell me what is wrong with these sights. (The instruc- 
tor now adjusts the sights of the bar, making various slight 
errors; first, to show the correct and incorrect adjustments 
of the sights, and then, with the sights properly adjusted, he 
sights on the small silhouette to demonstrate correct and in- 
correct adjustments, requiring the men to point out any 
errors.) Now take this sighting bar and adjust the sights 
properly. (Verified by the instructor.) Now that the sights 
are properly adjusted, have the small silhouette moved until 
the sights are properly aimed at it. How do you breathe while 
aiming? — A. After I get my sights lined up on the silhouette, 
I draw in a little more than an ordinary breath and let out 
a little, and hold the remainder while aiming and pressing 
the trigger. 

Q. Take the prone position, aim, and simulate firing a shot 
at that mark. (The instructor must assure himself that the 
man knows how to hold his breath properly while aiming. 
Many men have great difficulty in learning to do this 



250606° — 40 6 77 



72 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

correctly.) What is the best position from which to Are the 
automatic rifle? — A. Because of its weight it should be fired 
from the prone position with bipod rest. 

Q. Why is the sling used with the automatic rifle in the 
sitting or kneeling position? — A. To assist the firer in holding 
steadily. 

Q. I will take the automatic rifle and assume the kneeling, 
sitting, and prone positions, and you will tell me whether the 
position is correct or incorrect in each case. (The gun sling 
is adjusted for the sitting and kneeling positions in all these 
tests.) Take this automatic rifle and show me your kneeling, 
sitting, and prone positions. How do you press the trigger 
in firing bursts at the slow cyclic rate? — A. I press the trigger 
Tapidly to its full extent to the rear with a constantly increas- 
ing pressure, applied by the independent action of the fore- 
finger, and hold the trigger to its full extent to the rear for 
the length of burst desired. 

Q. What do you know while you are pressing the trigger? 
— A. I know that the sights are lined upon the silhouette. 

Q. When firing bursts are all shots aimed shots? — A. No. 
The first shot of each burst is an aimed shot, although it is 
not possible to aim as carefully as in firing single shots. 
The correct position is so steady that after each burst the 
gun will return to the target and it is necessary only to 
glance along the sights to see that they are properly alined. 

Q. Is it necessary to take a long time to press the trigger? 
— A. No. The necessary rapidity is developed by practice 
in the trigger manipulation exercise. 

Q. How do you press the trigger in firing single shots? — 
A. I press it the same way as in firing bursts but I release 
the pressure on the trigger immediately upon the release 
of the bolt to its forward position. 

Q. In firing several bursts how do you gain time so as not 
to be compelled to hurry in aiming? — A. I gain time by 
changing magazines rapidly and by keeping my eye on the 
target while firing. 

Q. How does keeping your eye on the target help you to 
gain time? — A. A man who looks away from his target loses 
time in finding his own target again. 



78 



BROWSING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 72 

Q. Now show me how you load a magazine into the re- 
ceiver. — A. (Soldier demonstrates.) 

Q. How are the magazines changed while firing in the 
prone position? — A. (Soldier demonstrates.) 

Q. Is it important to get into the correct position before 
beginning to shoot? — A. Yes; even though it takes more 
time, I should always get into the correct position before 
beginning to shoot. 

Q. What is meant by calling the shot? — A. To say where 
you think the bullet hit in firing single shots and where 
the first round hit in firing bursts. 

Q. How can you do this? — A, By noticing exactly where 
the sights point when the single shot or the first round is 
fired. 

Q. What is this? — A. A score book. 

Q. What are these lines for (indicating the vertical lines 
on the model target) ? — A. To show the amount of change 
in windage necessary to bring the shot to the middle line. 

Q. If a shot hits here (indicating) , what change in your 
sight would you make to bring the next shot to the center 
of the silhouette? — A. (Soldier explains.) 

Q. What effect does moving your rear sight have on the 
shot? — A. It moves it in the same direction as the rear 
sight moves. 

Q. If you want to make a shot hit higher, what do you 
do? — A. I increase my elevation. 

Q. If you want to make your shots hit more to the right, 
what do you do? — A. I move my rear sight to the right. 

Q. If you move your rear sight one point or 1 click of wind- 
age how much will it move the point struck by the bullet? — 
A. Three inches for each 100 yards of range. 

Q. Explain what you mean by that. I will place this 
spotter on this target (full size D target) to represent a shot 
properly fired by you at 500 yards with zero windage and 
sight set at 500 yards. Take your rifle and move your sight 
to bring the next shot to the center of the silhouette. (In- 
structor now tests in various ways the man's ability to make 
proper sight corrections.) What are the three principal 
uses of trie score book? — A. To show me where my shot group 



79 



72 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

is located, to indicate how much change in the sight is neces- 
sary, to move a shot or group of shots to the center of the 
target, and to make a record of the sight settings of my rifle 
for the different ranges under various weather conditions so 
that I will know where to set my sight when starting to shoot 
at each range under different weather conditions. 

Q. Tell me what effect different light and weather condi- 
tions have on a man's shooting. 

Q. In firing at ranges up to and including 600 yards, what 
is the only weather condition for which you make sight cor- 
rections? — A. Wind. 

Q. What three things do you do in cleaning a rifle bore 
after it has been fired? — A. I first remove the powder fouling 
from the bore. I then dry the bore thoroughly of the liquid 
used in removing the fouling. After this is done I oil the 
bare to protect it from rust. 

Q. How do you remove the powder fouling from the bore?— 
A. By swabbing it thoroughly two or more times with cleaning 
patches saturated with a hot water and sal soda or issue soap 
solution. 

Q. How do you dry the bore? — A. By running clean patches 
through the bore until it is thoroughly dry. 

Q. How do you protect the bore from rust?— A. By swab- 
bing it thoroughly with a cleaning patch saturated with oil. 

Q. In what way does cleaning the automatic riSe after fir- 
ing differ from cleaning the service rifle? — A. It is necessary 
to clean the piston, gas cylinder, chamber, and magazines, as 
well as the bore. 

Q. How should the metal parts of the rifle be oiled? — A. 
The rifle should be oiled by wiping a thin film of oil over all 
metal parts after cleaning. 

Q. Why cannot the barrel be removed and cleaned from 
the breech? — A. It is very difficult to replace the barrel as 
tightly as it should be, and as soon as the barrel works loose 
the rifle will develop head space trouble. 



80 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



72-73 



c. The form shown below will be completed for each indi- 
vidual who is to Are as an essential part of this examination: 



STATE OF LNSTRTJCITON 



Name 



nrovra- 

Smi(.h_. 
Knox.. .- 



-Q.H 

6 a 



=16 



.2 £ 



X 




X 

X 




X 
X 




X 

X 




X X 

X 










X 




X X 




X X 



Fair 



Good 



Very 
good 

Section HE 



JCxeollen fc 
and has in- 
structional 
ability 



COURSES TO BE FIRED 

■ 73. Scope and Object of Range Practice. — a. Range prac- 
tice Is divided into two phases: 

1,000-ineh range practice. 

Known distance range practice, 

b. In all range firing, the automatic rifle will be set for 
the slow cyclic rate. 

c. Practice on the 1,000-inch range is included in all marks- 
manship courses to conserve time, ammunition, and troop 
labor during the range season. The 1,000-inch range pro- 



81 



73-75 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 



vides a convenient, short distance range whereon the soldier 
can receive training with service ammunition in the funda- 
mentals of automatic rifle marksmanship. Firing on the 
1,000-inch range will be included in instruction practice for 
every individual firing a qualification course. The amount 
of such firing within the limits set forth in the tables will 
be determined by the company or higher commander. In 
general, recruits will require more of this type of firing in 
their instruction than previously qualified men, 

■ 74. Sequence of Firing. — The instruction practice out- 
lined for each course is intended to serve as a guide. Varia- 
tions may be made in the sequence prescribed within instruc- 
tion practice to take advantage of time, weather, and range 
facilities. Variations may be made in the sequence prescribed 
within record practice for the same reasons. In no case 
will an individual's record practice in a course be inter- 
spersed with his instruction practice. 

■ 75. Marksmanship Courses. — One of the following courses 
will be fired by each automatic Tifleman. The con- 
duct and rules governing these courses are covered in sec- 
tions IV and V. The particular course to be fired will be 
designated by higher authority in accordance with the pro- 
visions of AR 775-10. In all exercises which require single 
shots, the magazine will be loaded with the five rounds nec- 
essary for the complete score. (See also par. 95a(3),> 

a. Course A. — (1) 1,000-inch range. — (a) To zero the rifle. 

Table I 



Range 
(inches) 


Time 


Shots 


Tiirgct 
(1,000- 
inclV) 


Position 


Remarks 


1,000 

1,000 


No limit.. 
do 


5 


No.l- 
No. 2.. 


Prone, bipod resl__ 
Kneeling 


Single shot, 

I-.oop or hasty sling. 

Single shot. 



82 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

(&) Instruction practice. 

Table II 



75 



Ran^e 
(inches) 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 
(1,000 inch) 


Position 


Remarks 


1,000.. _ 


No limit. 


5 


No. 1 


Prone, bipod 
rest. 


Single shot. 


1,000 


...do 


s 


No. 2. 


Kneeling 


Loop or hasty sling. 
Single .shot. 


1,000 


25 


20 


No. 3 and 


Prone, bipod 


1. magazine, 20 rounds, 








No. 4, 


rest. 


in short bursts; 10 
rounds on each figure. 


1,000 


115 


40 


No. 5 to No. 
6. 


do 


Search and traverse 8 
magazines of 5 rounds, 
each in 6 round bursts. 


1,000 


ss 


10 


No. 7 to No. 
3. 


do 


Search and traverse 4 
magazines of 10 rounds, 
each in 5-rourid burBts. 



(2) Known distance range. — (a) Instruction practice. 
Table in 



Ttnngo 
(yards) 


Time . 


Shots 


Target 


Positiuii 


Remarks 


200 _ 


No limit. 


5 


KifleJJ 


Prone, bipod 
rest. 


Single shot. 


200_ 


...do 


5 


do 


Kneeling 


Loop or hasty sling. 
Single shot. 


300_ 


...do 


5 


do 


Prone, bipod 
rest. 


Single shot. 


mu 


...do 


5 


do 


do 


Do. 



83 



75 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

Table IV 



Range 
(yards) 


Time 


Shuts 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

200_ 

300 

600 

sno 


No limit , 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


6 

5 

5 

6 
10 


Rifle P 

do 

do , 

do 

do 


Kneeling 

Prone, bipod 

real, 
do 

do 

do 


Loop or nasty sltrijj. 

Single shot. 

1 magazine, 5 rounds, 5- 

round burst. 
1 magazine, 5 rounds, 5- 

round burst. 
Single shot. 
1 magazine, 10 rounds, in 

short bursts. 



Table V 



Eange 
(yards) 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 


No limit. 


5 


Rifle D 


Kneeling . . . 


Loop or hasty sling. 
Single shot. 


200 


30 


15 


do 


Prone, bipod 
rest. 


3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, in 5-round hursts. 


HOO 


30 - 


16 


do 


do 


3 magazines, 6 rounds 
each, in 5-round bursts. 


500 


No limit . 


6 


do 


do 


Single shot. 


600. - 


25 


10 


do 


do 


1 magazine, 10 rounds, in 
short bursts. 



Table VI 



Range 
(yards) 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


20O - 

coo 


SO 
30 
2B 


IS 
15 
10 


llifloD 

do 

do. 


Prone, bipod 

rest. 
do _ 

do 


3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, in fi-round hursts. 

3 magazines, 6 rounds 
each , in fi-round hursts. 

1 magaainc, 10 rounds, in 
short hursts. 



84 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(&) Record practice. 

Table VII 



75 



Range 
(yards) 


Time 
(.seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


ZOO 

300 

300 

500 

500 


No limit. 

30 

30 

No limit . 
25 


5 

15 

15 

h 
10 


Rifle!) 

do _. 

do 

do __ 

do - 


Prune, bipod 

rust, 
do 

do 

do __ 

do 


Single snot. 

3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, ill 6-roUild bursts. 

3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, In 5-roemd hursts. 

Single shot. 

1 magazine, 10 rounds, in 
short bursts. 



b. Course B. — (1) 1,000-inch range. — Fire tables I and II. 
(2) Known distance range. — (a) Instruction practice. 









Table VIII 




Range 
(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 ... 

200 

300 


No limit. 

...do 

...do 


5 
5 
5 


Rifle D 

do._ 

do 


Prone, bipod 

rest. 
Kneeling. . 

Prone, bipod 
rest. 


Single sliot. 

Loop or hasty sting. 
Single shot. 
Single shot. 












Table IX 




Range 
(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

200 

300 


No limit. 

...do 

...do 


5 
S 
5 


KifleD 

do __ 

do 


Kneeling 

Prone, bipod 

rest. 
do 


Loop or hasty sling. 
Single shot, 

1 magazine, 5 rounds, 
5-round burst. 
Do. 



85 



15 



BEOWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

Table X 



Range 
(yards) 


Tittle 
(seconds) 


Shots! 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

200 
300 


No limit. 

30 

30 _ 


5 
IS 
15 


RiHeD 

do 

do 


Kneeling 

Prone, bipod 

rest. 
do 


Loop or hasty sling. 

Single glint. 
3 miigazincs, 5 rounds 

each, in 5-rotmd bursts. 
Do. 



Table XI 



Range 
(yards) 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

300 


30 

30 


15 
10 


Rifle X> 
do 


Prone, bipod 

rest. 
do 


3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, In 5-round bursts. 
Do. 



<b) Record practice. 



Table XII 



Bange 
(yards) 


Time 
Seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

200 

300 


No Hmit. 

30. 

30 


5 
15 
15 


Rifle D 

do 

do 


Prone, bi- 
pod rest, 
— -do 

do 


Single shot. 

3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, in S-roundbursts. 
3Jo. 



86 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



75 



c. Course C. — (1) 1,000-inch range.— Fire tables I and II. 
(2) Known distance range. — (a) Instruction practice. 



Table XTTT 



Range 
(yards) 



200. 
200. 



Time 



No limits 
...do 



Shots 



Target 



Rifle D. 
do— 



Position 



Prone, bipod 

lest. 
Kneeling 



Remarks 



Single shot. 

Loop or hasty sling 
Single shut. 



Table XIV 



Range 
(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarks 


200 

200 


No limit. 
...do 


5 


Rifle D 
do 


Kneeling 

Prone, bipod 
rest. 


Loop or hasty sling. 
Single shot. 

1 magazine, 5 rounds, 
5-round burst. 



Table XV 



Range 
(yards) 



Time 
(seconds) 



Shots 



Target 



Position 



Remarks 



200. 
ail). 



No limit, 
30 



Rifle B- 
do^. 



Kneeling. 



Prone, bipod 
rest, 



Loop or hasty sling. 
Single shot. 

3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, in ground bursts. 



Table XVI 



Range 
(yards) 



Time 
(seconds) 



Shots 



Target 



Position 



Remarks 



ItifleD_ 



Prone, bipod 
rest. 



3 magazines, 5 rounds 
each, in 5-round bursts. 



87 



75-77 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(b) Record practice. 

Table XVII 



Range 
(yards> 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Itemarks 


200 


No limit. 


5 


Rifle It 


Prone, bipuil 
rust. 


Single Rbot. 


200 


„_do 


B 


do 


Kneeling 


T'Oop or hasty aluiE. 
Single shot. 


200 


OR 


30 


do 


rroiio, bipod 
rest. 


magazines, 6 rounds 
each, in 5-round bursts. 



d. Course I> — 1,000-incfi range. — (1) Instruction prac- 
tice. — Fire tables I and II and repeat table n, 

(2) Record practice. — Fire table EC, 

Section IV 

RANGE PRACTICE 

■ 7(6. General. — a. Training programs and schedules. — 
Training programs and schedules will provide a period for 
range practice. 

b. Range practice. — Range practice includes both 1,000- 
Inch firing and known distance firing. 

e. Officers' range practice. — The officers of an organization 
should be enabled to complete their own range practice in 
advance of their men whenever practicable in order that their 
entire attention may be given to their instructional duties. 

d. Uniform. — The uniform to be worn during instruction 
practice and record practice will be prescribed by the com- 
manding officer. The automatic rifleman's belt will be worn 
during instruction practice and record practice. 

e. Vse of pads. — The use of elbow pads is recommended. 
The use of shoulder pads is unnecessary but is permitted. 

E 77. Organization. — The officers, noncommissioned officers, 
and coaches of the units on the range will perform duties 
generally similar to those prescribed for them in preparatory 
maTksmansh;p instruction. (See sec. II.) 



88 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 77 

a. Officer in charge of firing, — An officer in charge of firing 
will be designated by the responsible commander. This officer 
or his deputy will be present during ail firing and will be in 
charge of the practice and safety precautions on the range. 

b. Range officer. — A range officer with such commissioned 
and enlisted assistants as are necessary will be appointed by 
the post or station commander well in advance of range 
practice. At large camps or stations where the coordination 
of range practice for different organizations is involved, he 
may function as the direct representative of the camp or 
station commander. In other cases he is responsible to 
the officer in charge of firing and in all cases he cooperates 
closely with him. The range officer will make timely esti- 
mates for materia] and labor to place the range in proper 
condition for range practice, and will supervise and direct 
all necessary repairs to shelters, butts, targets, firing points, 
and telephone lines. He exercises direct supervision over 
the practical operation of the rifle range during the prac- 
tice season. He regulates the distribution of ranges and 
targets and in general assists the officer in charge of firing 
by using the means necessary to secure efficient and accurate 
service from the working force of the range. He provides 
safe conditions for the markers and any visitors. Whenever 
necessary he provides range guards and instructs them in 
the methods to be used for the protection of life and property 
in the danger area. 

c. Unit range officers. — During the operation of any range 
by a unit the commanding officer thereof may detail an offi- 
cer as unit range officer. The unit range officer will be 
responsible to the commanding officer of the organization 
to which the range is assigned for its efficient operation. 

d. Pit detail. — An officer or noncommissioned officer with 
such assistants as may be necessary will be detailed in charge 
of arrangements In the pit. He will be responsible to the 
officer in charge of firing for the discipline, efficiency, and 
safety of all pit details. He sees that all of the target equip- 
ment is kept in serviceable condition; that the desired tar- 
gets are ready for firing at the appointed time; and that all 
target detaiJs are provided with the proper flags, marking 
disks, paste, pasters, and spotters, 

89 



78-80 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

■ 78. Use of Dummy Cartridges. — The corrugated type of 
dummy cartridges may be used in range practice. When 
ammunition must be conserved, a proportion of the corru- 
gated type dummies may be included in magazines with live 
ammunition. The use of any other type of range dummies 
is prohibited. 

■ 79. Firing Points. — All firing points should have firm soil. 
Loose loam or sand on the firing point has an adverse effect 
on accuracy. 

■ 80. Coaching. — a. General. — (1) During instruction prac- 
tice, each man on the firing line 'will have a coach to watch 
him and to help him correct his errors. An average soldier 
who has been properly instructed in the preparatory work 
or who has been given instruction in coaching methods can 
be used with good results and is used when more experienced 
coaches are not available. 

(2) It is good practice to have experienced coaches in 
charge of one or more targets, usually on a flank, to which 
pupils are sent for special coaching if required. 

(3) Great patience should be exercised by the coach so as 
not to excite or confuse the firer. Everything is done to 
encourage him. It is often a good plan to change coaches. 
It is necessary to do so if the coach shows signs of im- 
patience. 

b. Position of coach. — The coach will take the same posi- 
tion as the man who is firing, that is, prone, sitting, or 
kneeling. This enables the coach to watch the pupil's 
trigger finger and his eye. 

c. Duties of the coach. — The success of the instruction 
depends to a great extent on the thoroughness and exact- 
ness with which the coach performs his duties. During 
firing, duties of the coach in addition to those given in 
paragraph 54 are as follows: 

(1) To require the firer to inspect his rifle. 

(2) To check the sight setting and aiming, requiring 
them to be correct. 

(3) To observe the firer and see that he re-aims after 
each shot or burst. 

(4) To require the firer to fire as required for each 
target. 

90 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1B18A2 80-82 

(5) To point out errors and explain their effect upon the 
exercises. 

(6) To keep constant watch on the adjustment and con- 
dition of the gun. 

■ 81. To Aline EVont Sight. — a. The front sight will be 
adjusted only as directed by an officer. If the front sight 
is badly out of alinement, it should be alined by a soldier 
who has qualified on the record course with the automatic 
rifle prior to any range firing. If the group contains noi 
such man, the firing and alinement of the sight will be 
executed by the soldier holding the highest qualification 
with the service rifle. The 1,000-inch range is the best 
place to do this because the aiming point is small and well- 
defined and atmospheric conditions will have no effect on 
the flight of the bullet. 

b. In this firing, the windage setting is set at and the 
soldier aims at the bottom edge of a designated figure on 
the 1,000-inch target, U. S. rifle, caliber .30, Ml. He fires 
two or more rounds very carefully, using exactly the same 
aiming point for all shots. The center of the resulting 
shot group indicates how much and in what direction to 
move the front sight. The soldier then verifies the front 
sight adjustment by firing two more rounds. 

c. If the shot group is to the right of the aiming point, 
move the front sight to the right; if to the left, move the 
front sight to the left. To move the strike of the bullet 1 
inch at a range of 1,000 inches requires a movement of the 
front sight of only twenty-five out-thousandths inch. 

■ 82. To Determine Zero of Rifle. — Each rifle Will be 
"zeroed" for the 1,000-inch range in the firing provided for 
that purpose in table I. Each rifle will be zeroed for 300 and 
500 yards during the instruction practice provided for those 
ranges. Each man will keep a record of these zeroes in his 
score book. It will be noted that the lowest graduation on 
the rear sight leaf is 300 yards. When the rifle is fired at 200 
yards with a sight setting of 300 yards, a shot will hit the 
target approximately 6 inches above the point of aim. How- 
ever, since the dimensions of the silhouette of the D target 
are 26 inches wide and 19 inches high, a shot flred at 200 

91 



82-83 BROWNING A-OTCMATIC RIFLE, CftLIEER .SO, M1918A2 

yards with a sight setting at 300 yards will be well within 
the silhouette. 

a. To zero rifle for 1,000-inch range. — (1) The target for 
the 1,000-inch range is so devised that when aim is accu- 
rately taken at 6 o'clock on a black silhouette the center of 
a shot group should be in the center of the same silhouette. 

(2) The first two or more rounds are fired on the black 
silhouette of figure No. 1, with the sight set as low as pos- 
sible and zero windage. Corrections in elevation and wind- 
age to bring subsequent shots into the center of the black 
silhouette are set by the elevating and windage knobs. Such 
corrections are applied after every two or more shots under 
the direction of an instructor. If the visibility of the shot 
groups is limited, the instructor after taking necessary safety 
precautions may move along the line of targets and announce 
the corrections to the coaches in terms of clicks. One click 
equals approximately 1 inch on the target on the 1,000-inch 
range. 

b. To zero rifle for known~distance ranges. — (1) General. — 
The position of the spotters on the target will permit the 
necessary corrections in elevation and windage to be com- 
puted toy the elevating and windage rules. They are then 
applied as clicks to the sight. These sight settings should be 
made under the supervision of an instructor or experienced 
coach after groups of two or more rounds are fired- 

(2) At each range. — Set the elevation at the desired range. 
Set the windage at 0. Fire a group of two or more rounds. 
Ihen apply correction in clicks of elevation and windage to 
bring the center of the shot group into the center of the 
target. Record these corrections in the score book as the 
zero for that range. 

■ 83. Instruction Practice on 1,000-Ihch Range. — a. In- 
struction practice on the 1,000-inch range will conform to the 
regulations given in section V for record practice except that 
coaching is permitted and additional personnel to score tar- 
gets are not required. 

b. Each exercise on the 1,000-inch range will be preceded 
by an appropriate fire order. 



92 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1B1BA2 83-84 

(1) The form of fire order for firing without time limit is 
as follows : 

(a) Announce the position. 
<b) Figure 1. 

(c) rounds single shot, with ball cartridges, load. 

(d) COMMENCE FIRING. 
(£) CEASE FIRING. 

(/) CLEAR RIFLE. 

(2) For firing with time limit, the form of the fire order 
is as follows: 

(a) Announce the position, number of magazines, and 
number of rounds per magazine. 

(b) With ball cartridges, load. 

(c) Figures 3 and 4. rounds on each figure in 

round bursts, 

(d) COMMENCE FIRING. 
(.e) CEASE FIRING. 

(/) CLEAR RIFLE. 

C. If the 1,000-inch range is equipped with pits and slid- 
ing targets similar to those of a known distance range, the 
fire orders for firing prescribed for the known distance range 
under paragraph 84 apply except that b(2) (c) above is sub- 
stituted for paragraph 84b(2) (e). 

■ 84. Instruction Practice on Known Distance Range. — a. 
Instruction practice is carried out in conformity with the 
regulations governing record practice as given in section V, 
except that additional personnel for scoring targets are not 
required and each firer will have a coach with him on the 
firing line. The officer in charge of firing may prescribe the 
sequence of firing the courses of instruction practice. 

b. Each exercise on the known distance range will be pre- 
ceded by an appropriate fire order. 

(1) The form of fire order for firing without time limit 
is as follows: 

(a) Announce the position and number of rounds to be 
fired. 

(b) With ball cartridges, load. 

(c) Single shots. 

id) COMMENCE FIRING. 
Ce> CEASE FIRING. 

260606° — 40 7 93 



84-35 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(/) CLEAR RIFLE. 

(2) For firing with time limit, the form of the Are order 
is as follows; 

(a) Announce the position, number of magazines, and 
number of rounds per magazine. 

(&) With ball cartridges, load. 

(e) round bursts. 

(d) Ready on the right? 

(e) Ready on the left? 

(/) READY OH THE FIRING LINE, 
(?) CEASE FIRING. 
(fl) CLEAR RIFLE. 

The targets are withdrawn before the exercise starts and 
the red flag displayed at the center target. The command 
ready on the firing line is transmitted to the officer on 
noncommissioned officer in charge in the pits who will have 
the red flag waved and lowered on its receipt and who will 
cause the targets to be run up simultaneously 5 seconds 
after the flag is lowered. Upon the expiration of the proper 
time interval he causes the targets to be withdrawn. The 
officer in charge of the firing line gives the commands 
cease firing and clear rifle when targets are withdrawn. 

■ 85. Safety Precautions. — Safety precautions for observ- 
ance by troops are self-contained and complete in this 
manual. Reference to AR 750-10 is necessary for range 
officers, the officer in charge of firing, and the commander 
responsible for the location of ranges and the conduct of 
firing thereon. All officers and men who are to fire or who 
are concerned with range practice will be familiarized with 
the following safety precautions before firing is commenced: 

a. Danger flags will be displayed at prominent positions 
on the range during firing. Do not fire unless such flags 
are displayed. 

b. Upon arrival at the range the automatic rifles of an 
organization will be inspected by the officers to see that 
chambers and barrels are free from obstruction. 

c. All rifles on the range except those in use on the firing 
line will have bolts in the forward position and magazines 
withdrawn. Rifles on the firing line will not be loaded 
without command. 

94 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 85 

d. Consider every rifle to be loaded until it is examined 
and found to be unloaded. Never trust your memory as 
to its condition in this respect. 

e. Never point the rifle in any direction where an acci- 
dental discharge may cause harm. 

/, Firing will not begin on any range until the officer in 
charge of firing has ascertained that the range is clear 
and has given the commands load and commence firing- 

g. At least one officer will be present at all firing. 

h. No rifle will be removed from the firing line until an 
officer has inspected it to see that the bolt is In its forward 
position and the magazine is withdrawn. 

i. No person will be allowed in front of the firing line 
for any purpose until directed by an officer who has ordered 
all rifles to be cleared and ascertained that the order has 
been carried out. 

j. All firing will immediately cease and rifles set at "safe" 
(or cleared if ordered) at the command cease firing. 

k. All loading and unloading will be executed on the firing 
line with the muzzles directed toward the targets. Rifles 
will never be loaded in rear of the firing line. 

I. Care will be taken to avoid undue exposure of ammuni- 
tion to the direct rays of the sun. This creates hazardous 
chamber pressures. 

m. Never grease or oil the ammunition. 

n. See that the ammunition is clean and dry. Examine 
all live and dummy ammunition. Turn in all cartridges with 
loose bullets or which appear to be otherwise defective. 

a. Never fire a rifle with any rust-preventive compound, 
cleaning patch, dust, dirt, mud, snow, or other obstruction 
in the bore. To do so may burst the barrel. 

p. Before leaving the range, all rifles and belts will be 
inspected by an officer to see that they do not contain 
ammunition; and men in ranks will be questioned as to 
whether they have any ammunition in their possession. 

q. See AB 45-30 for regulations covering report of acci- 
dent involving ordnance materiel. 

r. No magazine test or magazine drill will be conducted in 
rear of the firing line. 



95 



86-39 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

Section V 
REGULATIONS GOVERNING RECORD PRACTICE 

■ 86. General. — a. Record practice for course A, B, or C is 
flred on the known distance range. Record practice for 
course D is fired on the 1,000-inch range. Additional provi- 
sions applicable for course D are given in paragraph 116. 

b. Record practice will follow instruction practice, 

c. When the record practice of an individual has com- 
menced it will be completed without Interruption by any 
other form of firing. Instruction practice and record prac- 
tice will not be conducted simultaneously unless the two types 
of practice are conducted on different parts of the range. 

d. The officer in charge of firing may at his discretion re- 
quire record practice upon the day on which instruction 
practice is completed. 

■ 87. Fire Orders. — Every time-fire exercise fired in record 
practice will be preceded by an appropriate fire order. Suit- 
able forms for such orders are given in section IV. 

■ 88. Sequence of Exercises. — The exercises given In the 
tables for record practice will be fired in the sequence di- 
rected by the officer in charge of firing. 

■ 89. Stoppages. — a. When a stoppage occurs which cannot 
be cleared by operating the operating handle, the firer will 
call "Time." The officer in charge of firing or one of his 
assistants will note the time left to complete the exercise 
and investigate the stoppage. The stoppage will he reduced. 
If the stoppage was not due to any fault of the firer, he will 
be authorized to load, aim, and commence firing on com- 
mand from the officer investigating the stoppage, who will 
allow him the unexpired time. In cases where the exact 
time remaining was not determined by the officer in charge, 
the firer will be allowed 2 seconds per round for the remain- 
ing rounds. When time and ammunition permit, the com- 
plete exercise will be retired. 

b. If the stoppage is manifestly the fault of the firer in 
failing to inspect either the gun, magazines, or ammunition, 
or is due to incorrect loading or replacing of magazines, no 



96 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 89-91 

time will be allowed to complete the firing and only that part 
of the exercise which was completed will be scoTed. 

c. The flrer will be allowed to fire rounds ejected In clear- 
ing stoppages. 

d. The soldier firing will not be given any Information with 
reference to the location of his previous hits on the incom- 
pleted target until the score is completed. 

e. Should a breakage occur, the gun will be repaired or a 
different gun substituted and the exercise completed. If a 
different rifle is substituted, the flrer will be allowed extra 
rounds to determine the zero of the substituted rifle. 

/.The officer in charge or his assistants will render all 
decisions on stoppages. 

g. A flrer, firing part of a time-fire exercise, will begin his 
firing with the entire target exposed. 

■ 90. Men Marking Targets Not to Know Who Is Firing. — 
Officers and men in. the pit will not be informed as to who 
is firing on any particular target. In case of such violation, 
the firer will be required to repeat his score and appropriate 
disciplinary action taken. 

■ 91. Target Details. — The details in the pit for the super- 
vision, operation, marking, and scoring of targets during rec- 
ord practice consist of officers, noncommissioned officers, and 
privates as follows: 

a. One commissioned officer assigned to each two targets. 
When it is impracticable to detail one officer to each two tar- 
gets in the pit, an officer will be assigned to supervise the 
marking and scoring of not to exceed four targets. In this 
case the pit scores will be kept by the noncommissioned officer 
in charge of each target who will sign the score cards. The 
officer will take up and sign each score card as soon as the 
complete score is recorded. 

b. One noncommissioned officer assigned to each target to 
direct and supervise the markers. This noncommissioned of- 
ficer will be selected from an organization other than the one 
firing on the target which he supervises. If this is not 
possible the officer assigned to the target will exercise special 
care to insure correct scoring. 



97 



91-93 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

e. One or two privates assigned to operate and mark each 
target. These privates may be selected from the organization 
firing on the targets to which they are assigned 

■ 92. Organization op Firing Line. — a. Scorers seated close 
to and to the right of the person firing. 

b. Telephone operators 5 paces in rear of the firing line. 

c. Persons awaiting their turn to fire 10 paces in rear oi 
the firing line. 

d. Low arm racks or rifle racks and cleaning racks 20 paces 
in rear of the firing line. 

■ 93. Score Cards and Scoring. — a. Duplicate score cards will 
be kept, one at the firing point and one in the pit. These 
cards will be of different colors. The cards at the firing point 
will bear the date, the man's name, the number of the target, 
and the order of firing. The pit record card will not show the 
man's name but will bear the date, the number of the target, 
and the order firing, 

b. Entries on all score cards will be made in ink or with 
indelible pencil. No alterations or corrections will be made 
on the card except by the organization commander or officer 
scorer in the pit who will initial each such alteration or 
erasure made. 

c. The scores at each firing point will be kept by a non- 
commissioned officer of some organization other than the 
organization firing on the target to which he is assigned. 
If this is not possible company officers will exercise special 
care to insure correct scoring. As soon as the score is com- 
pleted the score card will be signed by the scorer, taken up, 
and signed by the officer supervising the scoring. When con- 
venient the score cards are turned over to the organization 
commander. Except when required for entering new scores 
on the range, score cards will be retained in the personal 
possession of the organization commander. 

d. In the pit the officer keeps the scores for the targets to 
which he is assigned. As soon as the score is completed he 
signs the score card. He turns these cards over to the or- 
ganization commander at the end of the day's firing. The 
organization commander will check the pit records against 
the firing line records. In case of discrepancy between the 
two the pit record governs. 

98 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 93-95 

e. Upon completion of the record firing and after the 
qualification order is issued, the pit score card of each man 
will be attached to his score caTd kept at the firing point. 
These cards will be kept available for inspection among the 
company records for 1 year and then destroyed. 

■ 94. Marking, — a. The value of the shot is indicated as 
follows: 

(1) A five by a white disk. 

(2) A four by a red disk. 

(3) A three by a white disk with a black cross. 
(4> A two by a black disk, 

(5) A miss by waving a red flag across the front of the 
target. 

(6) Ricochet hits will be counted as a miss and so 
indicated. 

d. Spotters are placed in shot holes before running the 
target up for marking, 

c. The marking begins with the hits of the highest value. 
The center of the disk ls placed over the spotter, then swung 
off the target and back again to the next spotter, care being 
taken each time to show the correct face of the disk. The 
marking must be slow enough to avoid confusing the scorer 
at the firing point. When one spotter covers more than one 
shot hole the disk is placed over it the required number of 
times. Misses are indicated by slowly waving the red flag 
across the face of the target one time for each miss. 

■ 95. Procedure est Firing Without Time Limit. — a. On the 
firing line. — (1) One person only will be assigned to each 
target in each order. 

(2) As the values of each shot are signaled, the scorer an- 
nounces, in a tone sufficiently loud to be heard by the firer, 
the target number, the number of the shot, and the value of 
the hit. The scorer then records the value of the hits on 
the score card. 

(3) In the event that more than one round is fired in an 
exercise calling for single shots, the number of rounds fired 
in the burst will be scored as though they were fired singly. 

(4) Whenever a target is marked before the individual who 
is assigned thereto has fired, as will occur when another 

99 



95-96 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M191BA2 

man fires on the wrong target, the scorer will notify the 
officer in charge of firing. The latter will notify the officer 
In the pit assigned to the target to disregard the shot. This 
precaution is necessary to prevent errors in the pit record. 

(5) When an individual fires on the wrong target, he will 
not be scored a miss> until the target to which he is assigned 
has been pulled down and the miss signaled from the pit. 

(6) If the target is not half -masked at the completion of 
a score thereon, or if it is half -masked at the wrong time, 
the officer in charge of that firing point will adjust the matter 
at once over the telephone. This precaution is necessary to 
prevent the error from being carried on through the scores 
that follow. 

b. In the pit. — (1) The target is withdrawn and marked 
after each shot. 

(2) In the event that more than one Tound is fired in an 
exercise calling for single shots, the number of rounds fired 
in the burst will be marked as though they were fired singly. 

(3) When a shot is fired at a target it is pulled down. The 
noncommissioned officer indicates the location of the hit to 
the officer assigned to the target who announces its value and 
records it on the score card. A spotter is then placed in the 
shot hole, the previous shot hole if any is pasted, and the 
target is run up and marked. The noncommissioned officer 
supervises the marking of each shot. The officer also exer- 
cises general supervision over the marking. 

(4) When the pit score card indicates a score has been 
completed, the target is half-masked for about 30 seconds as 
a signal to the firing line of such completion. At the end 
of the 30 seconds the target is pulled fully down, the spotter 
removed, the shot hole pasted, and the target run up for the 
beginning of a new score. 

(5) When a target frame is used as a counterweight for a 
double sliding target, the blank side of such frame will be 
toward the firing line. 

■ 96. Procedure for Firing With Time Limit. — a, On the 
firinff line. — (1) One person only will be assigned to a target 
in each order. 

(2) When all is ready in the pit the red flag is displayed 
at the center target. At that signal the officer in charge of 

100 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 96 

the firing line will conduct the exercise to be fired in accord- 
ance with the procedure given in section IV. 

(3) If any individual fails to fire at all he will be given 
another opportunity. If he fires one or more bursts, the 
score must stand as his record except as provided in para- 
graph 89. He will not be permitted to repeat his score on 
the claim that he was not ready to Are. 

(4) As each shot is signaled from the pits it is announced 
by the scorer at the firing line. A score of 15 shots is an- 
nounced as follows as each shot is marked: "Target 22; 

1 five, 2 fives, 3 fives, 4 fives, 5 fives, 6 fives, 7 fives; 1 four, 

2 fours, 3 fours, 4 fours, 5 fours, 6 fours, 7 fours; 1 two." 
The scorer notes these values on a pad and watches the 
target as he calls the shot. After marking is finished he 
counts the number of shots marked, and if it is more or less 

than 15 calls "Re-mark No. ." If 15 shots have been 

marked, he then enters the value of each hit and their total 
value on the soldier's score card. 

b. In the pit. — CD The time of fire allowed for each ex- 
ercise is regulated by the officer in charge of the pit. The 
procedure is as follows: The targets are withdrawn before 
the exercise starts, and the red flag is displayed at the center 
target. The command ready on i;he firing line is trans- 
mitted to the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge 
in the pits who will have the red flag waved and lowered 
on its receipt and who will cause the targets to be run up 
simultaneously 5 seconds after the flag is lowered. Upon the 
expiration of the proper time interval he causes the targets 
to be withdrawn. 

(2) The officers scoring in the pit examine each of their 
targets in turn, announce the score, and record it on the 
pit score cards. Spotters are then placed in the shot holes 
and the targets run up and marked. The noncommissioned 
officers supervise the marking of each shot. The officers 
exercise general supervision over the marking of their targets. 

(3) The targets are left up for about 1 minute after being 
marked. They are then withdrawn, pasted, and made ready 
for another score. They may be left up until ordered pasted 
by the officer in charge of the firing line. 



101 



96-100 BROWNING AUTOMATIC KIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(4) If more than the number of shots to be flred are 
found on. any target in record practice, it will not be marked 
unless all of the hits are of the same value. The officer in 
charge of the firing line will be notified of the lacts by 
telephone. 

■ 97. Use op Telephones. — a. Telephones will -be used for 
official communication only. 

b. No one will ask over the telephone for information as 
to the name or organization of any person firing on any 
particular target, and no information of this nature will 
be transmitted. 

c. The following expressions will be used over the telephone 
in the cases enumerated: 

(1) When a shot has been fired and the target has not 
been withdrawn from the firing position, "Mark No. -." 

(2) When a shot has been fired and a target has been 
withdrawn from the firing position but not marked, "Disk 
No. ." 

(3) When the target has been withdrawn from the firing 
position and marked but the value of the shot has not been 
understood, "Redisk No. ." 

(4) When the firing line is ready for time Are, "Ready on 
the firing line." 

(5) When a shot is marked on a target and the person 
assigned thereto has not fired, "Disregard the last shot on 
No. ." 

■ 98. Coaching Prohibited. — Coaching of any nature after 
the firer takes his place on the firing line is prohibited. No 
person will render or attempt to render the firer any assist- 
ance whatever while he is taking his position or after he 
has taken his position at the firing line. 

■ 99. Use of Instruments. — a. The use of field glasses is 
authorized and encouraged. 

b. The use of instruments or devices for determining the 
force and direction of the wind is prohibited during record 
practice. 

■ 100. Shelter for Firer. — Sheds or shelter for the indi- 
vidual at the firing point will not be permitted at any range. 

102 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 101-109 

■ 101. Restrictions as to the Rifle. — Troops will use the 
Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, as it is 
issued by the Ordnance Department. The use of additional 
appliances is prohibited. The sights may be blackened. 
Ordnance Department test equipment will not be used for 
determining the classification. 

9 102. Ammunition. — The ammunition used will be the 
service cartridge as issued by the Ordnance Department. 

■ 103. Cleaning. — Cleaning is permitted at any time. 

■ 104. Gun Sling. — The gun sling will be used as prescribed 
in this manual for the various positions and in no other 
manner. 

M 105. Pads and Gloves. — a. Pads of moderate size and 
thickness may be worn on both elbows to protect them from 
bruising. A smooth pad of moderate size and thickness 
may be worn on the right shoulder. The use of other forms 
of pads is prohibited. The use of a hook or ridge on the 
sleeve of the shooting coat or shirt to keep the sling in 
place on the arm is prohibited. 

b, A glove may be worn on either hand provided it is not 
used to form an artificial support for the rifle. 

■ 106. Warming, Fouling, and Sighting Shots. — No warm- 
ing, fouling, or sighting shots will be allowed. 

■ 107. Shots Cutting Edge of Silhouette or Line. — Any 
shot cutting the edge of the silhouette will be indicated and 
recorded as a hit in the silhouette. Because the limiting 
line of each division of the target is the outer edge of the 
line separating it from the exterior division, a shot touching 
this line will be indicated and recorded as a hit in the 
higher division. 

■ 108. Score Interrupted. — If a score which is being fired 
without time limit is interrupted through no fault of the 
person firing, the unfired shots necessary to complete the 
score will be fired at the first opportunity. 

■ 109. Misses. — Before misses are signaled in record firing, 
the target will be withdrawn and carefully examined by an 
officer. Whenever a target is run up and a miss is indi- 

103 



109-116 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

cated, it will be presumed that this examination has been 
thoroughly made. No challenge of the value indicated will 
be entertained or resignaling of the shot allowed. 

■ 110. Shots To Be Included in Score. — All shots fired by 
the soldier in his proper turn after he has taken his place 
at the firing line and the target is ready will be considered 
as part of his score. 

■ 111. Firing on Wrong Target. — Shots fired on the wrong 
targets will be recorded as misses on the score of the man 
firing, no matter what the value of the hits on the wrong 
target may be. The soldier at fault is credited with only 
such hits as he may have made on his own target. 

■ 112. Two Shots on Same Target. — If two shots strike a 
target at the same time or nearly the same time, neither 
will be marked. The individual who fired on his own target 
will be allowed to fire another shot. 

■ 113. Withdrawing Target Prematurely. — If the target is 
withdrawn from the firing position just as a shot is fired, the 
scorer at that firing point will at once report the fact to the 
officer in charge of the scoring on that target. The officer 
will investigate to see if the case is as represented. Being 
satisfied that such is the case, he will direct the shot be dis- 
regarded and that the man fire another shot. 

■ 114. TjKtriRED Cartridges in Firing With Time Limit. — Each 
unfired cartridge will be recorded as a miss. 

■ 115. More Shots Than Prescribed in Firing With Time 
Limit. — When a target has more than the prescribed number 
of shots for a time-fire exercise in record practice and these 
hits are of different values, the target will not be marked. 
The soldier firing on that target will repeat the firing of his 
score. If all the hits on the target have the same value, the 
target will be marked and he will be given the value of the 
authorized number of shots. 

■ 116. Record Practice for Course D, 1,000-Inch Range. — a. 
The following special provisions apply only to record practice 
for course D which is fired on the 1,000-inch range. 



104 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 116 

b. So much of the foregoing provisions for record practice 
as can be applied will be followed. Suitable Are orders for 
use on. the type of 1,000-inch range which is equipped with 
pits and movable targets, as well as suitable fire orders for 
use on the type of 1,000-inch range which is not so equipped, 
will be found in section IV. 

e. When the record practice is fired on 1,000-inch ranges 
not equipped with pits and movable targets the following 
rules will apply: 

(1) Sufficient assistants will be detailed from companies 
other than the ones firing to assist the officer in charge. 
From the assistants, officers will be detailed as scorers at the 
rate of one for every four targets. 

(2) The officers detailed as assistants will aid the officer 
in charge in every way possible. They will — 

(a) Note deductions for penalties and report same to the 
scorer (see e(3) below). 

<b) Note the time out for stoppages and inspect to deter- 
mine whether the stoppage was due to any fault of the soldier. 

(e) Superintend the firing of rounds remaining from stop- 
pages not the fault of the firer. 

(d) Scorers will count the bullet holes in each target and 
report any that have more than the prescribed number. 

(e) Scorers will score the targets in accordance with the 
provisions of e below. 

d. (1) When a stoppage occurs that cannot be cleared by 
pulling back the operating handle and releasing it, the flrer 
will call "Time." The officer in charge of firing or an assist- 
ant will note the time left to complete the exercise. The 
stoppage will be reduced. The firer will load and complete 
the firing on command from the officer in charge who will 
allow the remaining time. In cases where the exact time 
remaining was not determined by the officer in charge, the 
firer will be allowed 2 seconds per round for the remaining 
rounds. 

(2) If the stoppage is manifestly the fault of the firer, no 
time will be allowed to complete the exercise, and only that 
part of the exercise which was fired will be scored. 

(3) Should a breakage occur the gun will be repaired or a 
different rifle substituted. If a different rifle is substituted 



105 



116 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

the firer will then be allowed extra rounds to determine the 
zero of the substituted rifle. He will then complete the 
exercise. 

e. The 1,000-inch record target will be scored in accordance 
with the requirements for record firing as follows: 

(1) The course shown in table II. paragraph 75a, will con- 
stitute the record course. The course consists of the five 
exercises shown in this table and includes a total of 110 shots. 

(2) In all exercises the soldier will be credited with five 
points for hitting the scoring space included within or touch- 
ing the outer scoring line of each figure at which he fires. In 
addition he will be credited with one point for each shot 
placed in or touching this scoring space. Example: In the 
first exercise the soldier fires his five shots at figure No. 1 and 
scores five hits. He is credited with five points for hitting the 
scoring space and an additional point for each shot therein. 
His total score is ten points. 

(3) In all of the exercises except the third a total of five 
shots only per scoring space will be allowed. Additional shots 
placed in the scoring space will not be counted. In the third 
exercise twenty shots will be divided between figures No. 3 and 
No. 4. Ten rounds should be placed on figure No. 3 and ten 
rounds on figure No. 4. However, a leeway of one shot in this 
distribution is permitted, and if the score is divided with 
eleven shots on one target and nine on the other all hits will 
be counted. Hits in excess of eleven on either of the targets 
will not be allowed. 

(4) The total possible score for each exercise and for the 
record course is as follows : Total 

possible 
Exercise: Shots scores 

First 5 10 

Second 5 10 

Third 20 30 

Fourth 40 80 

Fifth 40 80 

Total possible score 210 

(5) For firing before commence firing or after cease firing, 
five points will be deducted for each round so fired. 

106 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 116-118 

(6) In case of hits on the wrong target, the flrer who 
received the erroneous hits will refire his score. The flrer 
who placed his hits on the wrong target will count those 
upon his own and will not be permitted to refire the exercise. 

Section VI 
TARGETS AND RANGES 

■ 117. Targets. — The designations and dimensions of the 
two types of target used for marksmanship courses for the 
Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, are as follows: 

a. 1,000-inch target, U. S. rift., caliber .30, Ml (fig. 23) . — 
This target is used for fire on the 1,000 -inch range. The 
scoring figures numbered from 1 to 8, inclusive, are utilized 
in known distance marksmanship (ch. 2). Each of these 
scoring figures is composed of three silhouettes. These 
silhouettes are reduced in scale to represent the appearance 
of target D on the known distance range. The inner sil- 
houette of the 1,000-inch target represents the silhouette of 
target E> at 500 yards; the middle silhouette represents the 
four space of target D at 300 yards; the outer silhouette 
target represents the four space of target D at 200 yards. 
Hits in the inner silhouettes of the 1,000-inch target count 5; 
in the middle silhouettes, 4; and in the outer silhouettes, 3. 

b. Target D. — This target is used for all types of fire on 
the known distance range. It consists essentially of a square 
target, 6 by 6 feet in dimensions, upon which a black silhou- 
ette, representing a prone figure, is centered. Hits in the 
silhouette count 5, in the next space 4, and in the next 3. Hits 
on the remainder of the target count 2. 

■ 118. Ranges. — a. Suitability. — Ranges suitable for range 
firing with the U. S. rifle, caliber .30, M1903 and Ml, are 
equally suitable for range firing with the automatic rifle, 
caliber .30, M1918A2. 

b. Installation and construction. — The installation and con- 
struction of target ranges for small arms target practice is 
governed by AR 30-1505. The installation of range communi- 
cation systems is governed by AR 105-20. Range regulations 
for firing ammunition in time of peace are given in AR 750-10 
and include the safety limits and danger areas of ranges. 

107 



118 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 




108 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 118 

c. Selection of known distance ranges — CD direction. — If 
possible, a range should be so located that the firing Is to- 
ward or slightly to the east of north. Such location gives a 
good light on the face of the targets during the greater part 
of the day. However, security and suitable ground are more 
Important than direction. 

(2) Best ground. — The targets should be on the same 
level with the flrer or only slightly above him. Firing down- 
hill should be avoided. 

(3) Size. — The size of the range is determined by its plan 
and by the number of troops that will fire over it at a time. 
There are two general plans used in range construction: one 
with a single target pit and firing points for each range ; the 
other with firing points on one continuous line, the target 
pits for the various ranges being in echelon. 

(4> Intervals between targets. — The targets should be no 
farther apart than is necessary to reduce the chance of shots 
being fired on wrong targets. As a general rule, the inter- 
vals between targets are equal to the width of the targets 
themselves. Where the necessity exists for as many targets 
as possible in a limited space, this interval may be reduced 
one-half without materially affecting the value of the 
instruction. 

(5) Protection for markers. — (a) Protection is provided for 
the pit details by excavating a pit, by constructing a parapet 
in front of them, or by a combination of both methods. 

(b) Where there are several targets in a row, the shelter 
should be continuous. It must be high enough to protect the 
markers. The parapet may be of earth with a timber or con- 
crete revetment of sufficient thickness to stop bullets and from 
7 l /2 to 8 feet high above the ground or platform on which 
the markers stand. 

(6) Artificial butts. — If an artificial butt is constructed as 
a bullet stop, it should be of earth not less than 30 feet high 
and with a slope of not less than 45°. The slopes should be 
sodded. The provisions of AR 750-10 must also be met by 
the range. 

(7) Hills as butts. — A natural hill to form an effective butt 
should have a slope of not less than 45". 

250606" — 40 8 109 



118 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(8) Numbering of targets ^-Each. target is designated by 
a number. The numbers for ranges up to 600 yards should 
be at least 6 feet in height and should be painted black on 
a white background. Arabic numerals of the size suggested 
will always be quickly recognized. They should be placed 
on the butt behind each target or on the parapet in front, 
and not so far above or below as to prevent the flier seeing 
the number when aiming at the target. 

(9) Measuring the range. — The range should be carefully 
measured and marked with stakes at the firing points in 
front of each target. These stakes should be about 12 inches 
above the ground and painted white. Black figures indicate 
the number of the corresponding target. 

(10) Ranges parallel. — The different ranges for the same 
distance should all be parallel so that similar conditions with 
respect to wind and light may exist. 

(11) Firing mounds. — If it is necessary to raise a firing 
point, a low mound of earth no higher than required should 
be made. The mound should be level, sodded, and not less 
than 12 feet square. If the entire firing line is raised, the 
firing mound should be level, sodded, and not less than 12 
feet wide on top. 

(12) Pit shed. — A small house or shed should be built in 
or near the target pit for storing equipment. 

(13) Danger sigiials. — A danger signal will be placed in 
front of the targets when firing has been suspended. One 
or more red streamers will be prominently displayed on all 
ranges and at all times during firing. 

(14) Range house. — On large ranges a house containing 
a storeroom and office room is desirable. 

(15) Telephone service. — Ranges should be equipped with 
a telephone system connecting the target pit with each firing 
point, the range house, and the station headquarters. The 
number of telephones should not be less than one to each 
10 targets. 

(16) Electric belts. — On large ranges the installation for 
each five targets of an electric bell that can be controlled 
from a central point in the pit adds materially to the celerity 
and uniformity of target manipulation for time fire. 



110 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 118 

(173 Covered ways between pits. — Where the pits are in 
echelon, covered ways or tunnels should be provided between 
the various pits. This construction will allow the pit details 
to be shifted with safety without interrupting the firing. 

(18) 1,000-inch range. — A 1,000-inch range without a land 
danger area behind its backstop must meet the following 
minimum requirements: 

(a) Vertical bulletproof backstop and wing walls (natural 
or artificial) not less than 30 feet high. Wing walls must 
cover at least 15° on each flank. In case of artificial wing 
walls, they should be set at an angle of 15" with the backstop 
toward the firing points. 

<b) Ricochet pit in front of firing points providing at 
least a 4° slope downward from the normal line of fire from 
a prone position and extending to within 30 feet of the 
backstop and wing walls. If a vertical cliff or wall over 40 
feet high is available, no ricochet pit need be provided. 



Ill 



CHAPTER 3 

MARKSMANSHIP, MOVING GROUND TARGETS 

Paragraphs 

Section- I. General 119-12U 

II. Moving vehicles and personnel 121-123 

III. Moving targets, ranges, and range precautions 124—125 

Section I 

GENERAL 

■ 119. General. — Personnel armed with the Browning auto- 
matic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, will be trained to Are at 
moving targets such as tanks, armored vehicles, trucks, and 
personnel at appropriate ranges. They will be trained to 
meet hostile mechanized attack by standing their ground, 
taking cover, and delivering the maximum possible aimed 
Are with armor piercing or ball ammunition at the enemy 
armored vehicles or tanks and at any hostile foot troops 
which may accompany them. To this end they must be 
trained in the technique of such fire, 

■ 120. Fundamentals.- — a. General. — The fundamentals of 
shooting as presented in chapter 2 apply to firing at moving 
targets. In applying these fundamentals the automatic rifle- 
man must adjust his aim and trigger press to the movement 
of the target. 

b. Effective range. — Fire at moving targets is usually opened 
at ranges under 600 yards, and training in the technique of 
Are is normally limited to firing at such ranges with the bat- 
tle sight. Corrections for range are made by adjustment of 
the aiming point on the target. 

c. Leads. — Targets which cross the line of sight at any 
angle are classified as crossing targets. In firing at such 
targets the firer must aim ahead of the target so that the 
paths of the target and bullet will meet. The distance ahead 
of the target is called the "lead." Targets which approach 
directly toward the firer or recede directly from the flrer 
will for all practical purposes require no lead. 

112 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SAZ 121-122 

Section II 
MOVING VESICLES AND PERSONNEL 

■ 121. Place in Training. — a. Vehicles. — The technique of 
firing at moving vehicles with service ammunition follows 
training in known distance marksmanship (ch. 2). When 
time and ammunition allowances permit, 1,000-inch firing 
or caliber .22 firing may tie added as preliminary instruction. 

b. Personnel. — As in the case of practice in firing at mov- 
ing vehicles, instruction in this type of firing should follow 
instruction in known distance firing and should immediately 
precede the training of the squad in the technique of fire. 

■ 122. Moving Vehicles. — a. Determination and application 
of leads. — (1) The lead necessary to hit a moving vehicle 
is dependent upon the speed of the target, the range to the 
target, and the direction of movement with respect to the 
line of sight. Moving at 10 miles an hour a vehicle moves 
approximately Its own length of 5 yards in 1 second. A 
rifle bullet moves 400 yards in about y s second and about 
600 yards in about 1 second. Therefore to hit a vehicle 
moving at 10 miles an hour at ranges of 400 yards and 600 
yards, the leads should be 2 1 / 2 yards and 5 yards, respec- 
tively. At a speed of 20 miles an hour the leads should be 
5 yards and 10 yards, respectively. 

(2) Leads are applied by using the length of the target 
as it appears to the flrer as the unit of measure. This elim- 
inates the necessity for corrections due to the angle at 
which the target crosses the line of sight, because the more 
acute the angle the smaller the target appears and the less 
lateral speed it attains. The following lead table is fur- 
nished as a guide: 

TARGET LENGTH LEADS 



Target spued in miles 
per hour 



Fnr ranges i>r 400 yards For ranges of 400 

or less to COO yards 



10 
20 



Vi TL _ 1 TL. 

1 TL 2'1'L, 



113 



122-124 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(3) As an average rule, troops should be instructed to 
use a lead of 2 target lengths in firing at fast moving 
targets and of 1 target length against targets which appear 
to move slowly or to follow an interrupted course. 

&. Technique of fire. — (1) The following technique is em- 
ployed for firing at moving targets at ranges of 600 yards 
or less. The battle sight is used. Corrections for range are 
made by aiming at the top of the target at 600 yards and 
lowering the aim to the bottom as the target approaches 
the flrer. 

(.a) Approaching or receding targets, — The flrer holds his 
aim on the target in firing. 

(b) Crossing targets. — The fixer swings his line of sight 
through the target and out to the estimated lead. The 
automatic rifle is kept swinging ahead of the target at 
the prescribed lead in firing. 

(2) Fire is executed as rapidly as proper aiming and 
pressing of the trigger will permit. 

■ 123. Method of Aiming at Moving Personnel. — a. An 
elaborate system of calculating leads or of setting sights 
is neither necessary nor desirable. The following general 
rule is used with the battle sight. When firing at a man 
walking across the line of fire the point of aim at the various 
ranges is taken as follows: 

(1) At ranges of to 200 yards, aim directly at the lower 
part of the body. 

(2) At ranges greater than 200 yards, aim at the lower 
part of the body and lead him the width of his body. 

b. When firing at a man advancing ot receding from the 
flrer with the battle sight, choose a point of aim as indi- 
cated in paragraph 122b (1) (a) . 

Section III 

MOVING TARGETS, RANGES, AND RANGE 
PRECAUTIONS 

■ 124. Moving Targets and Ranges. — a. Firing at moving 
vehicles. — <1) Target. — A sled of the type shown in figure 24 
has proved to be the most satisfactory kind of target. It 
has the advantage of a low center of gravity which prevents 

114 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



124 



upsetting on rough ground and in making changes of direc- 
tion. The sled shown in the figure is 5Vz by 3Vz by 4M> feet 
high and weighs only 45 pounds. Figure 25 shows a similar 
sled covered with target cloth. 

(2) Towing. — For towing the target a ^-inch rope has 
been found satisfactory, the power being furnished by a 
lVi-ton truck. The pulley shown in figure 25 is simply a 
channel wheel bolted to a short length of 2-inch board. 
This board is staked to the ground at a point where a change 





TARGET FRAME 



FRONT VIEW OF TARGET 



EDGE .COVERED WITH TIN 

ELEVATION OF BASE 

Figure 24. — Target frame for moving target range. 



of direction of the target is desired. The knot shown in 
the figure should be 10 or 12 feet from the sled, depending 
on the speed at which the target is to be run. At faster 
speeds the knot must be at a greater distance from the sled 
to prevent the increased momentum of the sled from over- 
running the pulley. 

(3) Set-up. — With 500 yards of rope, a set-up as shown 
in figure 26 can be made. This set-up is only one of many 
possible to make with 500 yards of rope. Accidents incident 
to wrong laying may be prevented by keeping just in rear of 

115 



124 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 




Ftoukk 25.— Sled target covered with target cloth; pulley and trip 
knot for effecting changes of direction. 



, Target 




TVueTt 



• Gun 

Figure 26.— Set-up for towing a target. 



116 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 124-125 

the gun a safety officer whose duty is to see that the barrel 
is kept pointed in a direction not too near the truck. The 
essential elements in training a gun squad to fire at moving 
targets are much practice for the observer in estimating 
anguiar speeds and for the gunner in laying on a target in 
motion, and for everybody, speed. 

b. Firing at moving personnel. — Any class A range is suit- 
able for this purpose. E targets on sticks carried by men 
walking in the pits are sufficient. 

■ 125. Range Precautions. — For general range precautions 
including danger areas see AB 750-10. In addition to the 
individual safety precautions prescribed in chapter 2, the fol- 
lowing precautions will be observed: 

a. Firing at moving targets will not be permitted on any 
range until the safety angles have been carefully checked and 
markers have been placed so as to define clearly the right and 
left limits of fire. 

&. Personnel of trucks towing moving targets will operate at 
such distance from the line of fire as to be protected not only 
from direct hits but from ricochets. 

a. Trucks replacing targets on the course or personnel ef- 
fecting repairs will be equipped with red flags. 



117 



CHAPTER 4 
MARKMANSHIP, AIR TARGETS 

Paragraphs 

Section 1 I. General 126 

II. Technique of antiaircraft Are 127-131 

HI. Marksmanship training 132-136 

IV. Miniature range practice . 137-140 

V. Towed target firing 141-145 

VI. Ranges, targets, and equipment 146-151 

Section I 

GENERAL 

■ 126. Air Targets. — a. Suitable for autOTnatic rifle fire. — 
Combat arms take the necessary measures for their own im- 
mediate protection against low-flying hostile aircraft. There- 
fore all troops must be fully trained and imbued with the 
determination to protect themselves against hostile aerial 
attacks without reliance upon other arms. Low-flying hostile 
airplanes are suitable targets for automatic rifle fire. 

b. Classification. — From the point of view of the automatic 
rifleman, air targets may be classified as — 

(1) Omrhead^Those which pass over or nearly over the 
automatic rifleman. Overhead targets which dive directly 
toward the automatic rifleman are called direct diving tar- 
gets; those which climb directly away from the automatic 
rifleman are called direct climbing targets. 

(2) Nonoverhead. — Those which do not pass over or nearly 
over the automatic rifleman. 

Section II 
TECHNIQUE OF ANTIAIRCRAFT FIRE 

■ 127. General. — Airplanes present very fleeting targets and 
must be engaged promptly by all available weapons. This 
section on the technique of fire deals with placing automatic 
rifle Are on hostile low-flying planes. Details of antiaircraft 
marksmanship training which deal with firing on various 

118 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 137-131 

types of moving or towed targets are contained in sections 
IH, IV, and V. 

■ 128. Leads. — a. General. — In order to hit an airplane in 
flight, the flrer must aim ahead of the target so that the 
paths of the bullet and target will meet. The distance ahead 
of the airplane is called the "lead." A lead must be applied 
in all firing except when the target is at an extremely close 
range (100 feet), or when it is diving directly at the flrer or 
climbing directly away from him. 

ft. Application of leads. — The length of the target as it 
appears to the firer is used as the unit of measure for apply- 
ing leads. The number of times the flrer applies this unit 
of measure is explained in paragraph 131. 

■ 129. Target Designation. — a. Attacking aviation will often 
fly in V-shaped formations of three or more airplanes each. 
Therefore each one of the three airplanes of a typical hostile 
flight may be designated as a target for an element of the 
rifle platoon. For example, the first rifle squad is assigned 
to Are on the leading airplane ; the second rifle squad on the 
right airplane; and the third rifle squad on the leading 
airplane or airplanes. 

b, Automatic riflemen should assume the firing position as 
soon as possible after receiving warning of the approach of 
hostile airplanes and track the target until it comes within 
range. 

■ 130. Individual Technique of Antiaircraft Fire. — a. For 
all direct diving or climbing planes, aim and fire each shot at 
the target. 

&. For all targets except direct diving or climbing planes, 
aim and flre each shot with a lead of four target lengths. The 
target considered in determining the lead of four target 
lengths is a 30-foot airplane. In using this method for towed 
target firing, the lead will have to be changed in accordance 
with the length of the target. 

c. The battle sight is used in all firing at aerial targets. 
For all targets except direct diving or climbing planes, aim 
well above the target at ranges over 300 yards. 

■ 131. Delivery of Fire. — a.. Each shot must be aimed, the 
trigger pressed and released quickly. Fire should not be per- 

119 



131-132 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

mitted at faster rates than will permit careful aiming and 
trigger manipulation. Single shots are usually employed, 

b. Automatic rifle fire is a serious hazard to low-flying 
planes and if unhesitatingly delivered will tend to discourage 
such missions. Hits will frequently cause the plane to crash, 
and even if the effects of hits cannot be immediately observed 
may have caused serious damage. 

c. The four target length lead prescribed in paragraph 130b 
is suitable for firing on hostile planes which have a speed of 
around 200 miles per hour. This lead should be proportion- 
ately increased for hostile planes having much greater speed. 
(See par. 218c.) 

Section III 

MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 

■ 132. General. — a. Object of instruction. — The object of 
automatic rifle antiaircraft marksmanship instruction is to 
train the automatic rifleman to fire effectively at rapidly 
moving aerial targets. 

b. Basis of instruction. — (1) Prior to instruction in antiair- 
craft marksmanship the automatic rifleman should have 
completed known distance marksmanship (ch. 2) and his 
firing at moving ground targets (ch. 3). To become a good 
antiaircraft marksman he must be able to apply the funda- 
mentals of marksmanship to firing at rapidly moving targets, 
and to perform the following operations with accuracy and 
precision : 

(a) Apply the length of the target as a unit of measure in 
measuring the required lead. 

(o) Aline the sights of the rifle at the required lead 
rapidly. 

(c) Swing the rifle with a smooth, uniform motion so as 
to maintain the aim on the required lead while pressing the 
trigger and during the forward motion of the bolt. 

(<J) Properly apply the trigger press so as to get a shot off 
in a minimum of time and without disturbing the aim. 

(2) The course of training outlined in this section is in- 
tended to train the soldier to obtain the correct performance 
of the four operations combined into one continuous, smooth 



120 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 132-133 

motion when firing in any direction at rapidly moving aerial 
targets. 

c. Sequence of training. — Antiaircraft automatic rifle 
marksmanship is divided into preparatory exercises, minia- 
ture range practice, and towed target firing. 

d. Personnel to receive training, — Officers and men as cov- 
ered in AR 775-10 will receive antiaircraft training. 

■ 133. Preparatory Exercises. — a. General. — (1) Descrip- 
tion. — The preparatory exercises consist of the following three 
distinct steps which will be completed on each of the targets 
described hereafter prior to firing on those targets: 
Position exercise. 
Aiming and loading exercise. 
Trigger manipulation exercise. 
(2) Method. — The coach and pupil method will be carried 
on throughout the training. In the preparatory exercises 
each coach will observe and correct his pupil to see that the 
following points as applicable are observed: 
(a) Fropar position is taken, 
(o) Slack is taken up promptly and firmly, 

(c) Automatic rifle is swung with a smooth, uniform 
motion. 

(d) Automatic rifle is swung- by pivoting the body at the 
waist. 

(e) Arms, shoulder, automatic rifle, and head meve as a 
unit as the automatic rifle is swung. 

(?) Pressure on the trigger is applied promptly, decisively, 
and continuously. 

(g) Eye is kept open and does not blink on the forward 
motion of the bolt. 

(h) Muzzle does not jerk coincident with the release and 
forward motion of the bolt. 

(i) Pupil continues the aim during the entire length of 
travel of the target. 

<..j) Pressure on trigger is released quickly upon the 
release of the bolt. 

b. Organization. — With the targets and target range de- 
scribed hereinafter (sec. VI) , a group of 32 men per target 
is the most economical training unit. This group is formed 



121 



133 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



in two ranks of 16 men each. For the preparatory exer- 
cises this will permit 16 men to perform the exercises on 
each type of target while the remaining 16 men act as 
coaches. (See fig. 27.) "When firing the Browning auto- 
matic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, the interval between indi- 
viduals on the firing line should be increased. This is 
accomplished by placing only one-half the group on the 
firing line at one time. Each group should complete all 
preparatory training and instruction firing on its assigned 




Nonoverhead target. 




© Overhead target. 
Figure 27. — Organization lor training. 

122 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 133-135 

target. Groups then change places. The preparatory train- 
ing and instruction firing is then undertaken on the new 
type of target. This procedure will be followed until each 
man of each group has completed his instruction on each 
of the four types of targets. 

■ 134. First Step: Position Exercises. — a. The kneeling or 
standing position is generally used in antiaircraft firing. 

b. (1) These antiaircraft firing positions differ from those 
used in firing at ground targets in that — 

(a) The sling is not used. 

(b) The arms move freely in any direction with the body. 
(c'i The hands grasp the piece firmly. 

(d) The butt of the automatic rifle is pulled hard against 
the shoulder with the right hand, and the cheek is pressed 
against the stock. 

(e) In the kneeling position the buttock does not rest 
on the heel, and the left foot is well advanced to the left 
front. The weight is slightly forward. 

(21 The positions must be such that the automatic rifle, 
the body from the waist up, the arms, and the head can 
move as a unit. 

(3) When leading a target the automatic rifle is swung 
with a smooth, uniform motion. This is accomplished by 
pivoting the body at the waist. There is no independent 
movement of the arms, the shoulders, the head, or the rifle. 

(4) The instructor explains and demonstrates the position. 
He points out that If the automatic rifle is pulled or pushed 
in the desired direction by means of the left hand and arm 
a jerky motion instead of the smooth swing necessary for 
correct aiming and trigger manipulation will result. 

(5) Position exercises are conducted so that the automatic 
riflemen become proficient in rapidly assuming positions for 
firing at hostile aircraft moving in any direction. 

■ 135. Second Step: Aiming and Leading Exercises. — a. Pur- 
pose. — The purpose of the aiming and leading exercises is to 
teach the correct method of aiming and to develop skill in 
swinging the automatic rifle with a smooth, uniform motion. 

b. Method. — (1) For the instruction of the groups assigned 
to the nonoverhead target (fig. 28 ®> , the pupils in the kneel- 

123 



135-136 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

ing firing position are placed in one line at about IV2 yards 
interval, 500 inches from and facing the assigned target. The 
coaches take position, so they can observe the pupils. The 
commands for the exercise are: 1. aiming and leading exer- 
cise, 2. ONE (TWO) TARGET LENGTH LEADS, 3. TARGETS. At 

the command targets, the targets are operated at a speed of 
from 15 to 20 feet per second. Each pupil alines his sights on 
the spotter indicating the proper lead and takes up the slack 
in his trigger. He then swings his rifle with a smooth, uniform 
motion by pivoting the body at the waist and maintains the 
aim on the proper lead during the travel of the target. The 
operation is repeated as the target is moved in the opposite 
direction. The exercise is continued until the target has been 
moved four times in each direction. The coach and pupil 
then change places, and the exercise is continued until all 
men have acquired some skill in aiming and leading with 
one, two, and three target length leads, both from right to 
left and left to right. 

(2) For the instruction of the group assigned to the 
overhead target (fig. 28 © ) , the line is formed perpendicular 
to and facing the line of flight of the target. The procedure 
is the same except that one target length lead only is used. 

■ 136. Third Step: Trigger Manipulation Exercises. — a. 
General. — (1) The automatic rifleman is trained to press 
the trigger exactly as when firing at stationary targets except 
that the automatic rifle is kept in motion during the trigger 
press, the forward motion of the bolt, the firing of the shot, 
and momentarily after the firing of the shot. 

(2) m firing at a rapidly moving target, the untrained man 
has a tendency to permit the automatic rifle to come to rest 
momentarily while applying the final trigger press or during 
the forward motion of the bolt. This results in the shot going 
behind the target. Another fault of the untrained man is 
that of jerking the trigger quickly the instant the aim is on 
the required lead. 

(3) Due to the short period of time during which the usual 
aerial target will be within effective range, fire is opened as 
soon as possible and delivered at as rapid a rate as possible 
consistent with accuracy. The trigger is therefore pressed 
aggressively and decisively. Once started, the press is con- 

124 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 136 



® Nonoverhead. 




& Overhead. 
KsratE 28. — Aiming and leading targets. 



250606° 



125 



136 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

tinued Until the bolt is released and then is released quickly, 

b. Object. — The object of the trigger manipulation exercises 
is to train the automatic rifleman to apply pressure on the 
trigger while keeping the automatic rifle in motion, to de- 
velop a decisive trigger press so that fire can be opened in 
a minimum of time without loss of accuracy, to release the 
trigger quickly upon the release of the bolt, and to train him 
to follow through with the shot. 

c. Method. — (1) Trigger manipulation exercises are con- 
ducted in a manner similar to the aiming and leading exer- 
cises. The same targets are used but the spotters indicating 
the various target length leads are removed (fig, 29). 

(2) The pupils in the kneeling firing position are placed 
in one line at about Vfa yards' interval, 500 inches from and 
facing the assigned nonoverhead target. The coaches take 
position so they can observe the pupils. The commands for 
the exercise are: 1, simulate load, 2. trigger manipulation 

EXERCISE, 3. ONE (TWO) TARGET LENGTH LEADS, 4. TARGETS. 

At the command targets, the targets are operated at the 
proper speed. Each pupil takes up the slack in his trigger, 
estimates the lead announced in the order and applies that 
lead by swinging the automatic rifle in the manner learned 
in the aiming and leading exercise, and maintains his aim 
at the proper lead 'while applying a constantly increasing 
pressure on the trigger until the bolt is released. The aim 
is continued during the entire length of travel of the target 
regardless of release of the bolt. The pressure on the trigger 
is released quickly upon the release of the bolt. The im- 
portance of following through with the shot must be empha- 
sized. It is by this means that automatic riflemen develop 
the habit of keeping their automatic rifles in motion during 
the process of firing. All of the steps explained above are 
performed in one continuous operation. The exercise con- 
sists of having the pupils press the triggers and then release 
them quickly each time the target moves across the front. 
The exercise for each man consists of four passages of the 
target in each direction. The coach and pupil then change 
places and the work is continued until all men have become 
proficient in pressing and releasing the trigger correctly 
using various target length leads. 

126 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER 



.30, MI918A2 136 




<i) Nonoverliead, 




® Overhead. 
Figube 29. — Instruction targets. 



127 



136-138 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI918A2 

(3) The procedure for overhead trigger manipulation exer- 
cise is the same except that the line is formed perpendicular 
to and facing the flight of the target and one target length 
lead only is used. 

Section IV 

MINIATURE RANGE PRACTICE 

1 137. General. — a. Miniature range practice is divided into 
two parts, instruction firing and group firing. There is no 
record firing. 

b. All firing is on moving targets on the 500-Inch range. 
A suggested arrangement of the range is given in section VI. 
Provision is made for simultaneous firing by separate groups 
on horizontal, diving, climbing, and overhead targets. 

c. The course is fired with the Browning automatic rifle, 
caliber .30, M1918A2, if ammunition and danger area permit. 
If not, the bolt action U. S. rifle, caliber .22, MI922M1 or 
M1922M2, may be used. 

d. All rifles are zeroed before range practice starts. 

■ 138. Safety Precautions. — a. The safety precautions given 
in paragraph B5 are applicable to this firing and will be 
observed. 

b. If flrers are permitted to go forward to inspect their 
targets, rifles will be left on the firing line. If the Browning 
automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, is used, bolts will be in 
their forward position and magazines withdrawn. If the 
caliber .22 rifle is used, bolts will be left open and clips 
withdrawn. 

e. Target operators will remain behind the protective wall 
except when ordered to leave by the officer in charge of the 
target which they are operating. 

d. If the caliber .22 rifle is used, the bolt will not be forced 
home if difficulty in feeding is experienced. Attempting to 
force the bolt home may result in igniting a rim fired cart- 
ridge before the cartridge is chambered. 



128 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 139 

■ 139. Instruction Firing. — a. General. — (1) The purpose of 
instruction firing is to teach the soldier to apply the funda- 
mentals taught in the preparatory exercises to actual firing. 

(2) During instruction firing each soldier works under the 
supervision of a coach. 

(3) As a. group completes the preparatory training on a 
target, instruction firing should be taken up on that target 
and completed before the group moves to another target. 

(4) Instruction firing consists of that indicated in table I 
below. 

b. Procedure. — <1> As the instruction firing on each type 
of target fellows immediately after the preparatory exercises 
on that target, the organization of the training unit for fir- 
ing should be the same as that given in paragraph 133&. 

(2) The front Tank of each group is formed on the firing 
line in the kneeling firing position. The rear rank men act 
as coaches. 

(3) One-half of the front rank of the group fires while the 
remaining front rank men simulate firing. 

(4> A silhouette is assigned to each individual firer. For 
example, the four silhouettes on the right of the target aie 
assigned the first four men on the right of the line; the 
four silhouettes on the left of the target are assigned the 
next four men. Silhouettes for the men simulating firing 
are assigned in the same manner, i. e., the right four are 
assigned silhouettes on the right of the target and the left 
four are assigned silhouettes on the left of the target. 

(5) The officer in charge of the target commands: 1. load, 

2. ONE (TWO) TARGET LENGTH LEADS, 3. TARGETS. At the 

command targets, the targets are operated at the proper 
speed. Men assigned silhouettes on the right half of the 
nonoverhead target aim and fire in accordance with the 
method learned in the trigger manipulation exercise (par. 
136c(2)). They fire one round each time the target crosses 
from their right to left. Men assigned silhouettes on the 
left half of the nonoverhead target fire one round each time 
the target crosses from left to right. 



129 



139-140 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M1918A2 

(6) Men assigned silhouettes on the overhead target Are 
one round each time the target is run in the approaching 
direction in the same manner as explained above, 

(7) Pour rounds constitute a score. After each string of 
four rounds, targets are scored and shot holes penciled, 

(8) One point is awarded for each hit Jn the silhouette 
when using one target length, or in the proper scoring space 
when using more than one target length lead. 

(9) Half -groups alternate firing and simulating firing. 

(10) When front rank men have fired one score as the 
target moved In each direction, they change places with the 
men in the rear rank and act as coaches, 

(11) This procedure is followed until all men of the group 
have performed the required firing. 

(12) Upon completion of the firing prescribed in table I 
for any type of target, the group moves to another type target 
and continues until all have completed the instruction firing. 

(13) Modifications of the above method of firing to meet 
local conditions are authorized. 

Table 1. — Instruction firing (range 500 inches). 



Target 



Horizontal- 
Climbing., 
Divings __ 
O verhetuL . 



1 lead, S rotmds 



[4 rds. litoL 4rds. litoL 



2 leads, 8 rounds 



[4rds. I, toll 

[•tids.RtoL. 

|4rds. LtoE 

|4rds. R toL 

[4rds.T,toR 

[4 rds. approaching- 
[4rds. receding 



4rds. I. toR_. 

4rds. It to L 

4 rds. L to It 

4 rds. B. toL 

irda.Ltolt 

4 rds. approaching, . 
4rds. receding-. 



3 leads, 8 rounds Total 



4 rds. E toL 
4 rds. Lto B 
4 rds. R to L 
4 rds. L to R 
4 rds. R to L 
4 rds. L to It 

J 






24 
SI 
2i 
16 



Speed or all targets, Ifi to 20 feet \h:t second . Totid rounds, 88. 

■ 140. Group Firing. — a. General. — (1) Group firing is the 
final phase of antiaircraft marksmanship training on the 
miniature range. 

(2) It provides for competitions and illustrates the effec- 
tiveness of the combined fire of a number of automatic 
riflemen. 



130 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 140-142 

(3) Group firing will not be undertaken until the prepara- 
tory training and instruction firing have been completed. 

b. Procedure. — (1) Two silhouettes, one to be fired upon 
as the target moves from left to right and one to be fired upon 
as the target moves in the opposite direction, are assigned to 
each squad or similar group. 

(2) Each man of the front rank followed by each man in 
the rear rank fives four rounds at each silhouette as the 
target moves in the appropriate direction. 

(3) Targets are scored after completion of the firing of 
the entire squad or group. 

c. Scoring. — A value of 1 is given each hit on the silhouette. 

d. Score card. — A sample score card is shown in paragraph 
147e. 

Section V 

TOWED TARGET FIRING 

■ 141. General. — p.. Towed target firing is the final phase of 
automatic rifle antiaircraft marksmanship. It is conducted 
on the towed target range described in section VI. 

b. It consists of firing with caliber .30 ball or tracer am- 
munition at a sleeve target at various ranges and on varied 
courses. 

e. Towed target courses prescribed herein are guides which 
may be modified. Safety measures and ammunition require- 
ments restrict the length of the course. Safety measures also 
prevent the adoption of courses to include direct diving or 
direct climbing targets. 

tf. Towed target firing will follow miniature range instruc- 
tion firing. If, due to lack of facilities, a unit is unable to 
conduct miniature range firing it may be permitted to conduct 
towed target firing provided antiaircraft marksmanship pre- 
paratory training has been completed, 

■ 142. Courses To Be Fired. — o. Units authorized to fire will 
fire one or more of the courses enumerated in table II. 



131 



142-143 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

Tablp, li. — Courses to be fired 



go 

g* 

Q 


Typo of flight 


Altitude of tar- 
get 


Horizontal ran^e of 
course (yards) ' 


Speed 


Re- 
marks 


1 


Nonoverhead — 
horizontal (par- 
allel to firing 
lino from left to 
right). 


Minimum eon- 
sistent with 
safety. 


Minimum 100; 
maximum de- 
pends on width 
of danger area 
of range. 


Maximum 
possible. 


Seefis, 
3». 


2 


Nonoverhead— 
horizontal (par- 
allel to firing 
lino from right 
to loft). 


.do 


...do 


___.do 


See fig. 
39, 


a 


Overhead (per- 
pendicular to 
firing line) . 


...do 


Minimum, maxi- 
mum—in accord- 
with safety pre- 
cautions. 


do 


See fi£. 
40. 


4 


Oeiubinod courses 
Nor. 1,2, and 3. 


do 


Same as Tor courses 
Nos. 1,2, amlS. 


... ih> 


See flg. 
41. 



l The horizontal distance from the firing point directly under the target. 
The maximum slant range for all courses should not exceed GOO yards, 

■ 143. Safety Precautions. — a. Towed target firing will be 
conducted with due regard for the safety of the pilot of the 
towing airplane, the personnel engaged in firing, and all 
spectators. 

b. All firing is controlled by suitable signals or commands. 
commence firing and cease firing are given in such a manner 
as to be understood clearly and promptly by everyone engaged 
in firing. 

c. The signals and commands commence firing and cease 
firing will be given at such times as to prevent any bullets 
from falling outside the danger area. 

d. For all overhead flights, the signal or command com- 
mence firing will not be given until the towing plane has 



132 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, M191SA2 143-144 

reached a point 50 yards or less, measured horizontally on the 
ground from the firing point, and there is no danger of bullets 
striking the plane. The signal or command cease firing will 
be given when the sleeve target is at least 100 yards, measured 
horizontally on the ground, in advance of the firing line so 
there is no danger of bullets dropping outside the firing area. 

e. Whenever a towing cable breaks and the towing airplane 
is on a course which passes near the Sring point, all per- 
sonnel in that vicinity will be warned to lie flat on the ground 
until danger from the loose cable and the release is passed, 

/. No automatic rifle will be pointed at or near the towing 
airplane. All tracking will be on the towed target. Muzzles 
will be depressed during loading'. 

g. At least two safety officers will be designated to assist 
the officer in charge of firing in carrying out safety precau- 
tions. 

K. To provide for the safety of the towing airplane, firing 
will be permitted only when the smaller angle in space be- 
tween the gun-target line and the towline (or towline 
extended) is greater than 45°. 

i. An Air Corps officer should be at the firing point during 
an organization's initial practice for the season for the pur- 
pose of giving supplemental instruction and checking the 
safety measures taken. 

j. Additional safety precautions are covered in AR 750-10. 

■ 144. Procedure of Firing. — o. The men to Are take the 
antiaircraft kneeling firing position on the firing line with at 
least 1 % yards between men. 

6. The officer in charge of firing takes position in rear of 
the center of the firing line. 

e. Safety officers take position at either flank of the firing 
line. 

d. As the towing airplane approaches the left (right) side 
of the danger area, the officer in charge of firing gives the 
command: 1. (so many) rounds, LOAD, 2. sleeve target ap- 
proaching from the left (kight) . Each automatic rifleman 
loads his piece and sets it at "safe." 

e. As the towed target approaches the danger area, the 
officer in charge of firing commands : 3. pour target length 
leads. (See par, 218cJ At this preparatory command, each 

133 



144-146 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

automatic rifleman unlocks his piece, aims by swinging 
through the sleeve to the announced lead, pivoting at the 
waist, and maintains, his estimated lead. 

/. In firing at crossing targets the safety officer stationed 
at the end of the firing line opposite to the target's approach 
gives the signal or command commence fieing, when the 
sleeve target has completely crossed the line marking the 
firing area. The officer in charge of firing and such assist- 
ants as he desires repeat the command or signal to insure 
that al] firers hear it. Each automatic rifleman presses the 
trigger until bolt is released and then releases the pressure on 
the trigger quickly. He then re-aims rapidly and continues 
firing until the command or signal cease firing is given. The 
safety officer at the end of the firing point opposite to the 
target's departure observes the flight of the sleeve target dur- 
ing the firing. When he observes that the sleeve is about to 
leave the danger area he gives the signal or command cease 
firing. The officer in charge of firing and his assistants 
repeat the command or signal to insure that all firers hear it. 

g. In firing at overhead targets the same procedure is fol- 
lowed except that the officer in charge of firing, from his 
position behind the center of the firing line, determines when 
firing commences and ceases. He gives the command or 
signal commence firing when the towing plane is 50 yards or 
less in advanee of the firing line and cease firing before the 
sleeve is 100 yards in advance of the firing line. (See par. 
143.) 

■ 145. Scoring. — a. The number of hits is found by dividing 
the number of holes in the target by two, An odd hole is 
counted as a hit. 

b. The hit percentage is obtained by dividing the number 
of hits as obtained in a above by the total number of rounds 
fired at the target. 

Section VI 

RANGES, TARGETS, AND EQUIPMENT 

■ 146. Range Officer. — A range officer is appointed well in 
advance of range practice. His chief duties are stated in 
paragraph 77b. 



134 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI91SA2 



147 



■ 147. Miniature Range. — a. The miniature range consists 
of— 

(1) One horizontal target (fig. 30©) . 




© Horizontal 
(2) One double climbing and diving target (fig. 30® ). 




® Double climbing and diving. 
(3) One overhead target (flg. 30®). 




147 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30. M1B1BA2 



b. A suggested arrangement of the targets is shown in 
figure 31. 



CLIMBiNG-DIVING 



HORIZONTAL 



FIRING 
POINT 



FIRING i — 
POINT 



Figtjhe 31, — Arrangement ol taTgetB. 

c. Pot details of range apparatus see figures 33 to 38, 
inclusive. 

d. (1) The danger area required is dependent upon the 
type of ammunition, (See AR 750-10 for size and shape.) 

(2) The miniature range may be laid out in the same 
manner as described In paragraph 148c Care must be taken 
to insure that the firing line and targets are placed so that 
no Are wiJl fall outside of the danger area. 

e. If the organization for training is as suggested in para- 
graph 133b, the following equipment is necessary: 

1 automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, for each two 

men firing, or 
1 caliber .22 rifle for each two men firing. 
4 aiming and leading targets (fig. 28) . (Each of these 

targets consists of a piece of beaverboard on which 

the silhouettes are pasted.) 
6 instruction firing targets per range (fig. 29) . (These 

targets are the same as the aiming and leading 

targets except that the spotters are eliminated.) 
1 score card per man. 



136 



BROWNIWG AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, OT1018A2 147 

INDIVIDUAL SCORE CARD 
ANTIAIRCRAFT RIFLE MARKSMANSHir 

Date , ID 

Name 





1 TL lead 


2 TL lead 


STL lead 


Target 


Hounds 
lireri 


Hits 


Per- 
cent 


Rounds 
fired 


Hits 


For- 
co,ut 


Rounds 
fired 


Hits 


Per- 
cent 
















































































Total 









































■ 148. Towed-Target Range. — a. In selecting the location of 
a towed-targ&t range the danger area is the chief consid- 
eration. (See AR 750-10 J 

&. The firing point should accommodate at least 50 men 
in line with a l^-yard interval between men. A level strip 
of ground, preferably on a hill, 75 yards long and 2 yards 
wide is suitable. A firing point similar to the firing point of 
a known distance rifle range may be built. 

e. (1) After the towed target range has been selected, the 
firing point, limits of fire, and danger area should be plotted 
on a map or sketch of the area. 

(2) Prom this map or sketch the range is then laid out on 
the ground. First, each end of the firing point is marked by 
a large stake. The right and left limits of fire are then each 
marked by a post. Each post is placed at the maximum dis- 
tance at which it will be plainly visible from the firing point. 
When these distances have been determined, the posts are 
located in azimuth by the following method: To locate the 
post marking the left limit of fire, an aiming circle or other 
angle-measuring instrument is set up at the right end stake 
of the firing point. It is then oriented and laid on an azimuth 



137 



148-150 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 



75"TO MAXIMUM POSSIBLE 



BISECTION LINE ESTABLISHED BY 
AIMING CIRCLE TO LOCATE POSTS 



MARKING LEFT AND RIGHT 



LIMITS OF FIRE ■ 



SJ 



\ \ \\ 

\ V 

\ 



POSTS MARKING RIGHT 



.'/ 



tt L,fc.FI 


LIMITS OF / / 




f S / 


w 

%* 




V 1 


v/ / 




A 7 


fc jT 


•**£( RIGHT ENO STAKE OF 


FlfllNG POINT 


2 Y05. 


X 75 YDS 



Figure 32. — Towed target range showing firing point and limits of 
Are; dotted lines show danger area. 

which, by reference to the map or sketch, is known to be the 
farthest to the left that the rifle at the right end of the firing 
point can safely be fired. The post marking the right limit of 
fire Is similarly located with the instrument set up at the left 
end stake of the firing point. (See fig. 32.) 

(3) Direction guides for the towing airplane to follow 
should, within the limits of Are, be distinctly marked on the 
ground for each course. White targets or strips of cloth 
placed flat cr. the ground about 30 feet apart are suitable 

■ 149. Towed Targets. — a. Type and source. — The targets 
used in towed target firing are sleeve targets furnished by the 
Air Corps unit assigned the towing mission. They are re- 
turned to the Air Corps unit after they have been scored, 

b. Tow line. — The towing line will be not lsss than 600 yards 
long. 

■ 150. Instruction to Pilots For Towing Missions. — a. 
Towed target firing requires the closest cooperation between 
the pilot of the towing airplane and the officer in charge of 



138 



EHOWIIING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 



150 







150-151 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

firing. Decisions affecting the safety of the plane rest with 
Air Corps personnel. 

b. The air mission for towed target firing should be specifi- 
cally stated. The commanding officer requesting airplanes 
for towed target firing should furnish, in writing, to the Air 
Corps unit commander concerned the following information: 

(1) Place of firing, 

(2) Date and hour of firing. 

(3) Number of missions to be flown — altitude, course, 
speed, and number of runs for each. 

(4) Ground signals to be used. 

(5) Map of the area with firing line, angle of fire, danger 
area, course of each mission, and. location of grounds for 
dropping targets and messages all plotted thereon. An alter- 
nate dropping ground should be designated when practicable, 
and either or both dropping grounds are subject to approval 
by the pilot. 

(6) Length of tow line, within limits established by the 
Air Corps, and subject to approval by the pilot. 

(7) Number of sleeve targets required. 

c. Whenever practicable, the officer in eharge of the firing 
will discuss with the pilot the detailed arrangements men- 
tioned in b above. This discussion should take place on the 
towed target range where the various range features can be 
pointed out to the pilot. The courses over which the airplane 
is to be flown should be distinguished on the ground (within 
the angle of Are) . Machine gun targets placed flat on the 
ground about 30 feet apart or strips of target cloth are prac- 
ticable for this purpose on some courses. On others a ter- 
rain feature such as a beach line may be used. 

■ 151. Signals. — a. Direct radio communication is the most 
effective means by which the officer in charge of towed tar- 
get firing and the pilot of the towing plane maintain contact 
with each other. Even though radio is being used, panels 
should be available in case radio communication fails, 

b. For signaling from the ground to the pilot, any method 
agreed upon may be used. The panel signals generally used 
are as follows: 



140 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



151 



Standby 2 

Ready tofire __._ 

Repeat run No, i 9 1 

Repeat run No. 2 9 2 

Repeat run No. 3 9 3 

Repeat course 9 4 

Mission completer Panels are picked up 

c. The pilot may also communicate with the officer in 
charge of firing by dropped messages or by rocking his wings. 



IO¥* jfHrtB-ii) i^-tai-fci 1 




Figure 34. — Overhead target carrier. 




Figure 35.— Rear view of nouoverhead range butts, showing drum, 
guide wires, and bumper. 



250606° 



-10 



141 



151 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, JM1918A2 




Ptottke 36. — Moving target drum (one complete turn moves target 

15 feet) . 




■Figure 37. — Climbing and diving target (rear view) . 



142 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



151 




Figure 38. — Climbing and diving target (rear view) ana method of 
securing target to frame. 




Figure 39. — Courses Nos. 1 and 2. (Firing taftes place when target 
is on shaded portion of course.) 



143 



151 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 




Figuke 40. — Course No. 3. (Firing takes place when target is on 
shaded portion of course. Fire is opened when towing airplane is 
50 yards or less from firing point.) 




Figure 41. — Course No, 4. (Heavy lines Indicate when towed target 
is fired upon,) 

144 



CHAPTER 5 

TECHNIQUE OP FIRE 

Paragraphs 

SectiowI. General 152-154 

II. Range estimation 155— 1S9 

III. Target designation 160-166 

IV. Automatic rifle Are and its effect 167-174 

V. Application of fire I75-1B2 

VI. Landscape target firing 183-190 

VII. Field target firing 191-196 

Section I 

GENERAL 

■ 152. Definitions. — cl Technique of fire is the application 
and control of collective fire. Instruction in the technique of 
fire is given to automatic riflemen after they have completed 
or progressed sufficiently in other allied subjects such as 
known distance marksmanship, extended order, drill and 
combat signals, and certain elements of scouting and patrol- 
ling. This chapter deals -with instruction in the technique of 
fire. While the application of this training to combat should 
be kept in mind it does not include the solution of tactical 
exercises. 

b. Collective Are is the combined Are of a group of indi- 
viduals. It may include the Are of several different weapons. 

c, A Are unit is one whose Are in battle is under the im- 
mediate and effective control of its leader. The automatic 
rifle Are unit is usually the squad ox team. 

■ 153. Importahce of Rifle Fire. — Effective riSe fire is a 
characteristic of successful Infantry and is an element which 
may determine the issue of battle. Collective Are is most 
effective when it is the product of teamwork. 

■ 154. Scope. — Instruction is progressive and is divided into 
six consecutive steps. These are — 

Range estimation. 

Target designation. 

Automatic rifie fire and its effect. 

145 



154-158 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 

Application of Are. 
Landscape target firing. 
Field target firing. 

Section n 

RANGE ESTIMATION 

■ 155. Importance. — a. The battle sight for the automatic 
rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, corresponds to a sight setting of 
approximately 300 yards. With the use of the battle sight a 
shot will strike the target with the following approximate 
relation to the point of aim with respect to elevation: 

Range: 

Yards Strike with use of battle sight 

600 78 inches below point of aim. 

500 40 Inches below point of aim. 

400 14 inches below point of aim. 

300 strikes the point of aim. 

200 6 inches above point of aim. 

100 5.5 inches above point of aim. 

b. It is therefore important for the leader or individual 
soldier to be able to estimate the range to the target in any 
circumstances and to decide whether the battle sight or a 
more exact setting will be used. 

■ 156. Methods. — The following methods of estimating ranges 
are considered in instruction in the technique of automatic 
rifle fire : 

Use of tracer bullets. 
Observation of fire. 
Estimation by eye. 

■ 157. Use of Thacer Bullets. — The estimator fires a tracer 
bullet with his sight set at the estimated range. He then 
corrects the sight setting according to the strike of the bullet 
and continues the process until a tracer appears to strike the 
target. The estimator then announces the correct range 
making allowance for the zero of his own rifle. 

■ 158. Observation op Fire. — This method can be used with 
ordinary ball cartridges when the ground is dry and the strike 



146 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 158-159 

of the bullet can be seen. The same procedure is followed as 
in determining the range by tracer bullets. 

H 159. Estimation by Eye. — a. Necessity for training. — The 
usual method of estimating ranges in combat is estimation by 
eye. Untrained men make an average error of 15 percent of 
the range when estimating by eye. Hence a definite system 
of range estimation coupled with frequent practice on varied 
terrain is essential to success with this method. 

b. Unit of measure method. — (1) Range less than 500 yards 
are measured by applying a mental unit of measure 1010 
yards long. Thorough familiarity with the 100-yard unit 
and with its appearance on varied terrain and at different 
distances is necessary if the soldier is to apply it accurately. 

(2) Ranges greater than 500 yards are estimated by select- 
ing a point halfway to the target, applying the unit of meas- 
ure to this halfway point, and doubling the result. 

(3) The average of a number of estimates by different men 
will generally be more accurate than a single estimate. This 
variation of the suggested method is used when time permits, 
by taking the average of the estimates of members of the 
squad or group or of specially qualified men. 

c. Appearance of objects, — If much of the ground between 
the observer and the target is hidden from view, the applica- 
tion of the unit of measure Is impracticable. In such cases the 
range is estimated by the appearance of objects. Whenever 
the appearance of objects is used as a basis for range estima- 
tion, the observer must make allowances for the following 
eifects: 

(1) Objects seem nearer — 

(a) When the object is in a bright light. 

(b) When the color of the object contrasts sharply with 
the color of the background. 

(c) When looking over water, snow, or a uniform surface 
like a wheat field. 

id) When looking downward from a height, 
(e) In the clear atmosphere of high altitudes. 
(/) When looking over a depression, most of which is 
hidden. 



147 



159 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1916A2 

(2) Objects seem more distant — 

(a) When looking over a depression, most of which is 
visible. 

(b) When there is a poor light or fog. 

(c) When only a small part of the object can be seen. 

(d) When looking from low ground upward toward higher 
ground. 

d. Exercises. — <1) 2Vo. 1. — (a) Purpose. — To familiarize the 
soldier with the 100-yard unit of measure. 

(&) Method. — Units of measure, 100 yards each, are staked 
out on varied ground, using markers that will be visible up to 
500 yards. The men are required to become thoroughly famil- 
iar with the appearance of each unit of measure from the 
prone, kneeling, and standing positions at various ranges. 

(2) No. 2. — (a) Purpose. — To illustrate the application of 
the unit of measure. 

(b) Method. 

1 . Ranges up to 900 yards are measured accurately and 

marked at eveiy 100 yards by large markers or tar- 
get frames, each bearing a number to indicate its 
range. Men undergoing instruction are then 
placed about 25 yards to one side of the prolonged 
line of markers and directed to place a hat or other 
object before their eyes so as to exclude from view 
all of the markers. They are then directed to 
apply the unit of measure five times along a 
straight line parallel to the line of markers. When 
they have selected the final point, the eye cover is 
removed and the estimations of the successive 100- 
yard points and the final point are checked against 
the markers. Accuracy is gained by repeating the 
exercise. 

2. Ranges greater than 500 yards are then consi- 

dered. With the markers concealed from view, 
men estimate the ranges to points which are obvi- 
ously over 500 yards distant and a little to one 
side of the line of markers. As soon as they have 
announced each range they remove their eye 
covers and check the range to the target and to 
the halfway point by means of the markers. 

148 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 159-162 

Prone, sitting or kneeling, and standing positions 
are used during this exercise. 

(3) No. 3. — <a) Purpose. — To give practice in range esti- 
mation. 

(t>> Method. — From a suitable point, ranges are previously 
measured to objects within 1,000 yards. The men are re- 
quired to estimate the ranges to the various objects as they 
are pointed out by the instructor, writing down their esti- 
mates on paper pads or slips. At least one-half of the esti- 
mates are made from the prone or sitting positions. Thirty 
seconds are allowed for each estimate. When all ranges 
have been estimated the papers are collected and the true 
ranges announced to the class. To create interest, individual 
estimates and squad averages may be posted on bulletin 
boards. 

Section III 

TARGET DESIGNATION 

■ 160. Importance. — Target designation is a vital element in 
the technique of Are unless the target is self-evident. Battle- 
field targets are generally so indistinct that leaders and 
troops must be able to designate their location and extent. 
Small units and individuals must also be trained to place 
heavy Are on indistinct or probable targets in appropriate 
circumstances. 

■ 161. Topographical Teems. — Prior to instruction in target 
designation, automatic riflemen should understand the topo- 
graphical terms normally employed in designating targets; 
for example, crest, military crest, hill, cut, ridge, bluff, fill, 
ravine, crossroads, road junction, road center, road fork, 
skyline. 

■ 162. Methods. — a. The following methods are used to des- 
ignate targets: 

Tracer bullets. 
Pointing. 
Oral description. 
b. Troops will be trained in all the methods. The method 
used should be the one best suited to the conditions existing 



149 



162-165 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIF1E, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

at the time of the appearance of the target. When methods 
are equally effective, the simplest will be employed. 

■ 163. Tracer Bullets. — a. The use of tracer bullets is a 
quick and sure method of designating an obscure battlefield 
target. Their use, however, has limitations for they may 
disclose the position of the firer to the enemy; further, the 
effect of a sudden burst of fire is lessened by preceding it 
with tracers. 

b. To designate a point target by this method, the individ- 
ual announces, "Range 500, watch my tracers," and fires a 
tracer at the target. If the target has width, the flanks are 
indicated by tracer bullets and announced as "left flank, 
right flank." Any range correction should be announced. 

H 164. Pointing. — Targets may be pointed out either with 
the arm cr the automatic rifle. Pointing may be supple- 
mented by oral description. To use the automatic rifle for 
this purpose it is canted to the right and aimed at the target. 
The head is then straightened up without moving the rifle. 
A soldier standing behind looks through the sights and 
locates the target. If time permits, the bipod is adjusted and 
the rifle is aimed at the target. In pointing, the range is. 
always announced. Usually some supplementary description 
will be necessary. 

■ 165. Oral Description. — a. Use. — Oral description is often 
used to designate targets. However, battlefield conditions 
■will rarely permit the leader to designate a target directly to 
all members of his unit by this method. For this reason 
either pointing or tracers are frequently used in combination 
with oral description. 

b. Elements of oral target designation. — The elements of 
oral target designation are — 

Range. 

Direction. 

Description of target. 
These elements are always given in the above sequence with 
a slight pause between each element. An exception to this 
rule occurs when the target is expected to be visible for a 
short time only. In this case the target is pointed out as 
quiokly as possible; for example, such an oral target designa- 

150 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 
I 1 t 



165 




165 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

tion might be "Those men." No range is announced and the 
automatic riflemen open fire with the sight setting then on 
their automatic rifles (fig. 42, target at K). If time permits, 
the range is announced and sights are set immediately before 
looking for the target. 

c. Direction. — The terms "front" (left, right) and "flank'' 
(left, right) may be used to- indicate the general direction of 
the target. When necessary, the direction is fixed more ac- 
curately by the methods hereafter described. 

d. Simple description. — When the target is plainly visible 
or at an easily recognized point as illustrated in figure 42, a 
simple description is used, for example (target at A) : 

Range: 425. 

Left front. 

Sniper at base of dead tree. 

e. Reference point. — When the target is indistinct or in- 
visible and is not located at some prominent point, the direc- 
tion of the- target is indicated by the use of a reference point. 
This is an object, preferably a prominent one, by reference 
to which the location of other points may be determined. In 
selecting a reference point, care must be taken that another 
similar object is not mistaken for the one intended. A ref- 
erence point on a line with the target and beyond it will give 
greater accuracy than one between the observer and the tar- 
get. For brevity a reference point is called "Reference." 

(1) When the reference point is on line with the target, the 
description takes the following form (target at B> : 

Range: 450. 

Reference: church spire. 

Target : machine gun in edge of woods. 
It will be noted that the range announced is that to the target 
and not to the reference point. When the word reference 
is used the word "target" is also used to differentiate between 
the two objects. Another example follows (target at C) : 

Range: 300. 

Left front. 

Reference: black stump. 

Target: sniper on far side of road. 



152 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19I8A2 165 

(2) When the reference point is not on line with the 
target — 

(a) It is necessary to indicate the distance to the right or 
left of the reference point at which the target is located. 
This distance is measured in units called "sights" (par. 187b> . 
Suppose that the automatic rifle is pointed so that the left 
edge of the raised sight leaf is on line with the reference 
point and it is found that the right edge of the sight leaf is in 
line with the target, the target is then one sight width to the 
right of the reference point and it is announced as "Right, 
one sight." If the sight can be applied one and one-half times 
in th© above manner, the target is "Right, one and one-half 
sights." The following examples illustrate this method: 

(Target at D)— 

Range: 600. 

Reference: church spire; right, two sights. 

Target: group of enemy in shellhole near crest. 
(Target at E) — 

Range: 425. 

Left front. 

Reference: dead tree; right one and one-half sights. 

Target: sniper in edge of woods. 
(Target at F) — 

Range: 450. 

Reference: church spire; left one-haif sight. 

Target: machine gun in corner of woods. 

(b) The width or extent of targets is also measured in 
sights (target O to H) . 

Range: 425. 

Reference: church spire; left two sights. 
Target: enemy groups in. edge of woods extending left 
two sights. 

(3) Successive reference points may be used instead of 
sight measurements from one reference point (target at I). 
The following example illustrates this method: 

Range: 500. 

Reference : church spire ; to the right and at a shorter 

range, group of three trees; to the right and at the 

same range. 
Target: machine gun at left end of mound of earth. 

153 



165-166 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(4) An example of a combination of successive reference 
points and sights is as follows (target at K) : 
Range: 600. 

Reference: church spire; to the left and at a shorter 
range, lone tree; left one sight and at the same 
range. 
Target: machine gun in. clump of brush. 
/. Variations. — If one end of a linear target is considerably 
nearer than the other, the average range is announced, since 
dispersion will cover the target. In oral description the 
simplest, briefest, and clearest description that fits the con- 
ditions is the most effective. Informal or conversational 
descriptions may be used to supplement the more formal de- 
scriptions when the target is not recognized from the latter 
alone. 

■ 166. Exercises. — a. No. 1. — (1) Purpose. — To afford prac- 
tice in target designation by means of tracer bullets. 

(2) Method. — (a) On a known distance or field firing 
range a concealed target representing a machine gun is 
placed near a pit or other bulletproof shelter. About 500 
yards in front of the target a firing position suitable for a 
squad is selected. The location of the target should be visible 
from the firing position, but the target itself is carefully 
concealed. 

(b) The squad is deployed along the firing position and 
all except the leader are then faced to the rear. 

(c) The leader takes the prone position and is told that 
the waving of a red flag to his front will represent the firing 
and smoke from the machine gun. 

(d) A man stationed in the pit waves a flag in front of the 
target for about 30 seconds and retires to the protection of 
the pit. 

(e) The squad is faced to the front and men take the 
prone position. Automatic rifles are loaded, the leader using 
tracer ammunition and the automatic riflemen ball cartridges. 

(/) The leader points out the target by Bring tracers and 
announces the range. 

(g) As soon as each automatic rifleman understands the 
■ location of the target he opens Are with the proper sight 
setting. 

154 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER -30, M1918A2 166 

(h) Shortly after both automatic riflemen have taken up 
the firing, the instructor terminates the exercise. 

(i) The squad leader after designating the target observes 
the firing. The second in command assists the squad leader, 

(7) After firing ceases, sight settings are checked by the 
squad leader and the target is examined or the hits are sig- 
naled to the squad. 

&. No. 2. — CD Purpose. — To teach the use of sights and 
fingers for lateral measurement. 

(2) Method. — (a) A number' of short vertical lines 1 foot 
apart are plainly marked on a wall or other vertical surface. 
At a distance of 20 feet from the wall a testing line is drawn 
or marked out by stakes. The instructor explains that the 
vertical lines are one sight (50 mils) apart when measured 
from the testing line, so that the correct distance from the 
automatic rifle sight leaf to the eye can be determined by 
pointing the automatic rifle at the vertical lines and moving 
the eye along the stock until the raised sight leaf covers the 
space between one of the vertical lines and the next line to the 
right or left. The instructor demonstrates with a rifle while 
explaining. 

(b) The men take positions on the testing line and each 
determines the proper distance of his eye from the sight as 
explained by the instructors. The position of the eye with 
reference to the stock is carefully noted or marked on the 
stock. 

(c) The instructor then explains and demonstrates the use 
of fingers in measuring sights. First he holds his hand, with 
palm to rear and fingers pointing upward, at such distance 
from his eye that each finger will measure one sight on the 
wall. Then he lowers his hand to his side without changing 
the angle of the wrist or elbow and notes the exact point at 
which the hand strikes the body. Thereafter when measur- 
ing with the fingers he first places his hand at this point and 
raises his arm to the front without changing the angle of the 
wrist or elbow. His hand will then be in the correct position 
for measuring sights by fingers. The men then determine 
the proper distance of fingers from the eye as explained by the 
instructor. 



155 



166 BROWNING AUTOMATIC HIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191BA2 

(d) Practice in lateral measurement is given, using con- 
venient objects within view and using both sights and fingers. 

c. No. 3. — (1) Purpose. — To afford practice in target desig- 
nation by pointing with the rifle. 

(2) Method. — (a) The squad is formed faced to the rear. 
The instructor then points out the target to the squad leader 
who takes the kneeling or prone position, estimates the range, 
adjusts his sight, alines his sight on the target, and then calls 
"Ready." 

(b) The members of the squad then move in turn to a 
position directly behind the squad leader and look through the 
sights until they have located the taTget. The range is given 
orally by the squad leader to each automatic rifleman. 

(c) As soon as each automatic rifleman has located the 
target he moves to the right or left of the squad leader, sets 
his sight, adjusts his bipod, and alines his sights on the target. 

(d) The instructor, assisted by the squad leader, verifies the 
sight setting and the alinement of the sights of each rifle. 

d. No. 4. — CD Purpose. — To afford practice in target desig- 
nation by oral description. 

(2) Method. — (a.) The squad is deployed faced to the rear. 
The squad leader is at the firing point where the automatic 
rifles with bipod rests adjusted have been placed. 

(b) At a prearranged signal the target is indicated by the 
display of a flag. When the squad leader states that he 
understands the position of the target the flag is withdrawn, 

(c) The squad is then brought to the firing point, placed 
in the prone position, and each automatic rifleman required 
to set his sight, using the bipod rest, and sight his rifle on the 
target according to the oral description of the squad leader. 
The squad leader gives his target designation from the prone 
position, 

(.d) The squad leader's designation is checked from the 
ground. The automatic riflemen are required to place a sup- 
port under and brace the butt of their automatic rifle and 
leave them properly pointed until checked by the instructor 
or squad leader. 



156 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 167-171 

Section TV 
AUTOMATIC RIFLE FIRE AND ITS EFFECT 

■ 167. Nature of Trajectory. — The trajectory is the path 
followed by a bulletin its flight through the air. The bullet 
leaves the rifle at a. speed of 2,700 feet per second. Because 
of this great speed, the trajectory at short ranges is almost 
straight or flat. 

* 168. Danger space. — The space between the automatic rifle 
and the target in which the trajectory does not rise above a 
man of average height is called the "danger space." The 
trajectory for a range of 700 yards does not rise above 68 
inches. Therefore, it is said that the danger space for that 
range is continuous between the muzzle of the gun and the 
target. For ranges greater than 700 yards the bullet rises 
above the height of a man standing, so that only parts of the 
space between the gun and the target are danger spaces 
(fig. 43). 

■ 169. Dispersion. — Because of differences in ammunition, 
aiming, holding, and wind effects, a number of bullets fired 
from an automatic rifle at a target are subject to slight dis- 
persion. The trajectories of those bullets form an imaginary 
cone-shaped figure called the "cone of dispersion." 

■ 170. Shot Groups. — When the cone cf dispersion strikes a 
vertical target it forms a pattern called a "vertical shot 
group." A shot group formed on a horizontal target is called 
a "horizontal shot group." Due. to the flatness of the tra- 
jectory, horizontal shot groups on level ground vary in length 
from 100 to 400 yards depending upon the range. 

■ 171. Beaten Zone. — The beaten zone is the area on the 
ground struck by the bullet forming a cone of dispersion. 
When the ground is level, the beaten zone is also a horizontal 
shot group. The slope of the ground has great effect on the 
shape and size of the beaten zone. Rising ground shortens 
the beaten zone. Ground that slopes downward and in the 
approximate curve of the trajectories will greatly lengthen 
the beaten zone. Falling ground with greater slope than the 
trajectory will escape fire and is said to be in defilade. 

250606°— io it 157 



171 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



o 

O 

T2"' 



o 



o 



s 



o 



J3 



_ o 
co o 



■a 









158 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI913A2 172-174 

■ 172. Classes of Fire. — a. Fire as regards direction is classi- 
fied as follows: 

(1) Frontal. — Fire delivered on the enemy from its front. 

(2) Flanking. — Fire delivered on the enemy from its flank. 
&. Fire as regards trajectory is classified as follows: 

(1) Grazing. — Fire approximately parallel to the ground 
and close enough, thereto to strike an object of a given height. 
The average height of a man (68 inches) is usually taken as 
determining grazing fire. 

(2) Plunging. — Plunging fire is fire in which the angle of 
fall of the bullets with reference to the slope of the ground 
is such that the danger space is practically confined to the 
beaten zone and the length of the beaten zone is materially 
lessened. Fires delivered from high ground on ground lying 
approximately at right angles to the cone of fire, or against 
ground rising abruptly to the front with respect to the posi- 
tion of the rifle, are examples of plunging fire. As the range 
increases, fire becomes increasingly plunging because the 
angle of fall of the bullets becomes greater. 

<3> Overhead. — Fire delivered over the heads of friendly 
troops. 

c. Comvartsan. — Flanking fire is more effective than frontal 
fire. Grazing fire is more effective than plunging fire, be- 
cause the beaten zone is much longer. Overhead fire with 
the automatic rifle is unusual and may be employed only 
when the ground affords protection to the friendly troops. 

■ 173. Effect of Fire.— The fire of automatic riflemen 
armed with the automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, will gen- 
erally be opened as close to the enemy as possible. Such fire, 
properly applied, is of decisive effect. It will also be used 
against low-flying planes and against mechanized attacks. 
The effect of fire on such targets is covered In chapters 3 
and 4. 

■ 174. Demonstration of Trajectories. — a. Purpose. — To 
show trajectories. 

b. Method. — The unit under instruction watches the firing 
of a few tracer bullets at targets whose ranges are an- 
nounced. Ranges of 300, 600, and 800 yards are suitable 
selections. The flatness of the trajectories is called to the 
attention of the men. 

159 



175-176 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M131BA2 

Section V 
APPLICATION OF FIRE 

■ 175. General. — a. Means of action, — Infantry has two gen- 
eral means of action, fire and movement. Infantry fights 
by combining these two means of action. Fire and movement 
are combined in the combat action of the squad and large 
units. The application of fire by such units is essential to 
their success. 

6. Application of fire. — a) in the attack. — The automatic 
rifleman must be trained to place a large volume of accurate 
fire upon probable enemy locations and indistinct or con- 
cealed targets such as enemy machine guns or small groups. 
He must be trained to apply such fire quickly upon the order 
or signal of his leader and in appropriate circumstances to 
apply it without such order. 

(2) In the defense. — In defense the Are of automatic rifle- 
men is delivered from positions which must be held. They 
are placed to secure good fields of fire covering probable ave- 
nues of approach and to take advantage of cover and con- 
cealment. 

c. Requirements of position. — In the occupation of a firing 
position, the location of squads or teams armed with the 
Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, in the platoon 
area should be made with due regard to the following require- 
ments: 

(1) Good field of fire covering probable avenues of ap- 
proach. 

(2) Use of cover and concealment. 

(3) An indefinite and inconspicuous formation which will 
suit the terrain and be hard to see. 

(4) Control of fire by unit leader. 

■ 176. Concentrated and Distributed Fire. — The size and 
nature of the target presented may call for the firepower of 
the entire squad or only a part. The fire of a group must 
necessarily be either concentrated or distributed fire. 

a. Concentrated fire. — Concentrated fire is fire directed at 
a single point. This fire has great effect but only at a single 
point. Antitank guns and automatic weapons are examples 
of suitable targets for concentrated fire. 

160 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 176-180 

o. Distributed fire. — (1) Distributed fire is fire distributed 
in width for the purpose of keeping all parts of the target 
under effective fire. It is habitually used on targets having 
any considerable width such as a portion of the edge of a 
woods or road, 

(2) Unless otherwise instructed the automatic rifleman will 
habitually cover the entire target, employing bursts of about 
five rounds at the slow cyclic rate. The first burst is fired on 
that portion of the target corresponding generally to the 
automatic rifleman's position in the squad or group. 

(3) If other targets appear, the squad or team leader an- 
nounces such changes in the Are distribution as are necessary. 

■ 177. Assault Fihe. — Assault Are is that automatic Are de- 
livered by the automatic rifleman while advancing at a walk, 
the rifle being carried as prescribed in paragraph 62. 

■ 178. Rate of Fire. — The automatic rifleman Ares at the 
rate of fire most effective under existing conditions and gen- 
erally at a rate of from 120 to 150 shots per minute automatic 

Are. 

■ 179. Pike Discipline. — Fire discipline in the automatic rifle 
squad implies the careful observance of the instructions rela- 
tive to the use of the automatic rifle in combat and exact 
execution of the orders of the squad leader. It implies care 
in sight setting, aim, trigger manipulation, close attention to 
the leader, independent increase in the rate of fire when the 
target becomes more favorable, cessation of fire on the squad 
or team leader's order or signal, or when a target cannot be 
located with sufficient deflnition to justify the expenditure of 
ammunition. It also implies that when the squad or team 
leader has released the automatic rifleman from the control 
of his Are order, each automatic rifleman acts on his own 
initiative, selects sight setting and target independently, and 
opens and ceases fire in accordance with the situation. 

■ 180. Fiee Control. — a. General. — Fire control consists of 
the initiation and supervision of the fire of the automatic 
rifle squad or team by its leader. By initiating fire on order 
or signal, the effect of surprise is increased. On the other 
hand, the irregular formation adopted for an advance will 
often render such action impracticable. In such case Are 

161 



180-181 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

must be opened and maintained on the initiative of automatic 
riflemen as circumstances require. In any case the leader of 
the automatic rifle squad or team must supervise and seek 
to control the fire of his men so that it is directed and main- 
tained at suitable targets. All must understand that con- 
trolled fire is always the most effective. 

&. How exercised. — (1) Squad leaders, assisted by their 
assistant squad leaders, exercise Are control by means of 
orders, commands, and signals. The signals most frequently 
used are- 
Signals for range. 

Commence firing. 

Fire faster. 

Fire slower. 

Cease firing. 

Are you ready? 

I am ready. 
(2) A description of the signals is found in FM 22-5, 

■ 181. Fire Orders. — a. Purpose. — The leader of an auto- 
matic rifle squad or team having made a decision to fire on a 
target must give certain instruction as to how the target is 
to be engaged. The instructions by which the fire of a squad 
or team is directed and controlled form the fire order. 

b. Basic elements. — A fire order contains three basic ele- 
ments which are announced or implied in every case. Only 
such elements or parts thereof wil) be included as are essen- 
tial. The sequence is always as follows: 

Target designation element. 

Fire distribution element. 

Fire control element. 

(1) Target designation element. — The target may be desig- 
nated by any one or a combination of the prescribed methods 
(see sec. HI) . 

(2) Fire distribution element. — The fire distribution ele- 
ment is normally omitted from the fire order for automatic 
rifle units. The method of fire distribution described in 
paragraph 176& is habitually employed. When necessary, the 
Are distribution element includes the subdivision of the tar- 
get. For example — 



162 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MIS18A2 181-182 

(a) A squad leader desires to engage two machine gun 
nests; the distribution element of his order might be as in- 
dicated by the italic words below: 

Range: 500, 

Front. 

Machine gun at base of lone pine. 

Cooper, your target. 

Range: 500. 

Left flank. 

Machine gun at base of haystack. 

Brown, pour target. 

(b) The squad leader may engage two targets by placing 
one automatic rifleman under the command of the assistant 
squad leader and directing him to engage one target, while 
he engages the other target with the other automatic 
rifleman. 

(3) Fire control element. — The Are control element nor- 
mally consists initially of merely the command or signal 
commence tiring. It may include the number of magazines 
or rounds. Other Are control elements are — 
at my signal (followed by hand signal) . 

ONE MAGAZINE (FIVE ROUNDS) COMMENCE FIRING. 

c. Example. — An example of a complete Are order follows: 

(1) Target designation, element. 
(Range) Range: 600. 

(Direction) Reference: right edge of 

lone building. 

(Description of target}.., Target: group of enemy 

along hedge. 

(2) Fire distribution element. — (Implied) , 

(3) Fire control element. — commerce firing. 

■ 1S2. Duties of Leaders. — The following summary of duties 
of leaders relates only to their duties in the technique of 
fire: 
a. Squad leader. — (1) Carries out orders of platoon leader. 

(2) Selects firing positions for squad. 

(3) Designates targets and issues fire orders. 

(4) Controls fire of squad. 



163 



182-185 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIPLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

(5) Maintains Are discipline. 

(6) Observes targets and effect of fire. 

b. Assistant squad leader. — <1) Carries out orders of squad 
leader. 

(2) Assists squad leader to maintain fire discipline. 

(3) Assumes command of squad in absence of squad leader. 

(4) Participates in firing when the fire of his rifle is con- 
sidered more important than other assistance to the squad 
leader. 

Section VI 

LANDSCAPE TARGET FIRING 

■ 183. Scope and Importance. — a. After satisfactory progress 
has been made in the preceding steps, the automatic rifleman 
may toe given practice in the application of those lessons by 
firing at landscape targets. 

b. The advantages of this training are — 

(1) The close supervision over all members of the firing 
group made possible by their close proximity. 

(2) The accessibility and nature of the targets which per- 
mit the application and effect of the fire to be readily shown. 

(3) It is a form of instruction which lends itself to indoor 
training when lack of facilities or weather conditions make 
it desirable or necessary. 

c. In circumstances where there is a choice between land- 
scape target firing as covered in this section and firing 
at field targets as covered in section VII, the latter is to be 
preferred. 

■ 184. Description op Target.' — A landscape target is a pan- 
oramic picture of a landscape and is of such size that all or 
nearly all of the salient features will be recognizable at a 
distance of 1,000 inches. The standard target is the series 
A target of five sheets in black and white. 

■ 185. Weapons To Be, Used. — Firing at landscape targets 
should be with caliber .22 rifles, preferably the M1922M2 
equipped with the Lyman receiver sight. When a sufficient 
number of those rifles are not available, the automatic rifle, 
caliber .30, M1918A2, may be used. 



164 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 186 

■ 186. Preparation op Targets, — a. Mounting. — (1) The 
sheets are mounted on frames made of 1- by 2 -inch dressed 
lumber with knee braces at the corners. The frames for the 
target sheets are 24 by 60 inches. These frames are covered 
with target cloth which is tacked to the edges. 

(2) The target sheets are mounted as follows: Dampen 
the cloth with a thin coat of flour paste and let it dry for 
about an hour; apply a coat of paste similarly to the back 
of the paper sheet and let it dry about an hour; apply a 
second coat of paste to the back of the paper and mount 
it on the cloth; smooth out wrinkles, using a wet brush or 
sponge, and work from the center to the edges. The frame 
must be placed on some surface which will prevent the cloth 
from sagging when the paper is pressed on it. A form for 
this purpose can easily be constructed. It must be of the 
same thickness as the lumber from which the frames are 
built, and must have approximately the same dimensions 
as the aperture of the target frame. 

b. Supports for target frames. — The target frames de- 
scribed above are set on posts placed upright in the ground 5 
feet from center to center. The target frames are supported 
on the posts by cleats and dowels: in order to allow for easy 
removal. 

c. Range indicators. — In order to make all elements of tar- 
get designation complete, assumed ranges must be used as 
landscape targets. Small cards on which are painted appro- 
priate numbers representing yards of range are tacked along 
one or both edges of a series of panels. The flrers must be 
cautioned that the range announced in any target designa- 
tion is for the sole purpose of designating the target, and 
that the sight setting necessary to zero their rifles must not be 
changed. 

d. Direction cards. — In order to provide the direction ele- 
ment in oral target designation, small cards on which are 
painted "front, right front, left front, right flank, left flank" 
are tacked above the appropriate panels of the landscape 
series. 

e. Scoring devices. — (1) A squad or team may be brought up 
to the target and there view the results of its firing. Scoring 



165 



186 BROWHING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

the exercises will tend to create competition between squads 
and will enable the instructor to grade their relative pro- 
ficiency in this form of training. A scoring device, conform- 
ing in size to the 50 and 75 percent shot groups to be ex- 
pected of average shots firing at 1,000 inches, and at reduced 
ranges, can easily be made from wire, or a better one may be 
prepared by imprinting a scoring diagram on a sheet of trans- 
parent celluloid. The scoring space is outlined on the target 
in pencil before the target is shown to squad leaders. This 
procedure prevents any misunderstanding of squad leaders as 
to the limits of the designated target. Upon completion of 
firing, the entire squad is shown the target and the results of 
the firing. 

(2> While shot groups are in the form of a vertical ellipse, 
the 50- and 75 -percent zones should be shown by the devices 
as rectangles. This is for convenience in their preparation. 
For a distance of 1,000 inches, the 50 -percent zone is a rec- 
tangle 2'/2 inches high by 2 inches wide; the 75-percent rec- 
tangle, is 5 inches high by 4 inches wide. For a distance of 
50 feet, the 50-percent zone is a rectangle 1% inches high by 

1.3 inches wide; the 75-percent rectangle is 3 inches high by 

2.4 inches wide. The target is at the center of the inner 
rectangle or 50 -percent zone. 

(3) For a linear target, such as a small area over which 
the automatic riflemen will distribute their fire, the 50 -per- 
cent zone is formed by two lines drawn parallel to the longer 
axis of the target (area) and with the target midway between 
those lines. For a distance of 1,000 inches the lines should 
be 2V2 inches apart; for a distance of 50 feet the lines should 
be Wz inches apart. Two additional lines similarly drawn 
form the 75 -percent zone. For a distance of 1,000 inches the 
lines should be 5 inches apart; for a distance of 50 feet the 
lines should be 3 inches apart. The width of the zones will 
vary according to the size of the target selected. For a 
distance of 1,000 inches the zones extend 1 inch beyond each 
end of the target; for a distance of 50 feet the zones extend 
.6 inch beyond eaeh end of the target. The zones are then 
divided into a convenient number of equal parts, the number 
depending on the length (width) of the target and the num- 



166 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1B18A2 185-187 

bcr of men firing. This is done In order to give a score for 
distribution of shots fired on a linear target (par. 189b) . 

B 187. Zeroing-in op Rifles. — a. It will be necessary to 
zero-in the rifles used before firing exercises on tbe landscape 
target. A blank target with a row of ten 1-inch square 
black pasters about 6 inches from and parallel with the bot- 
tom edge of the target should be prepared and used for this 
purpose. In all firing for zeroing-in, sandbag rests are used. 

b. The procedure for zeroing-in the TJ. S. rifle, caliber ,22, 
Ml 922, M1922M1 and M2, in detail is as follows: 

(1> The sights of the rifle are blackened. 

(2) The squad is deployed on the firing points; the squad 
leader takes the proper position in rear of the squad. 

(3) The instructor causes each, flrer to set his sights at 
zero elevation and zero windage and checks each sight. 

(4) Each man is assigned the particular small black paster 
which corresponds to his position in the squad as his aiming 
point. 

(5) Three rounds are issued to each man on the firing 
point to be loaded and fired singly at the command of the 
instructor'. 

(6) Each man fires three shots at his spotter at the com- 
mand THREE ROUNDS, COMMENCE FIRING. 

(7) The instructor commands; CLEAR RIFLES. The 
squad leader checks to see that this is done. 

(8) The instructor and squad leader inspect the target and 
based upon the location of the center of impact of the result- 
ant shot group give each man the necessary correction for 
his next shot, as "Up 1 minute, right one-half point." 

(9) The firing continues as outlined above until all rifles 
are zeroed in, that is, until each man has hit his aiming 
point. 

c. For a caliber .22 rifle with the Lyman receiver sight, at 
a distance of 1,000 inches, a change of 5 minutes in elevation 
will move the strike of the bullet about 1 Vz inches. A change 
of one point of windage moves the strike about l 1 /* inches. 
At a distance of 50 feet a change of 6 minutes in elevation 
will move the strike of the bullet about 1 inch, and a change 
of one point of windage, about % inch. 



167 



187-189 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 

d. To zero the automatic Tifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, at 1,000 
inches, see paragraph 82. 

■ 188. Firing Procedure. — The sequence of events in con- 
ducting firing exercises is as follows: 

a. All members of the squad except the squad leader face 
to the rear. 

b. The instructor takes the squad leader to the panels and 
points out the target to him. 

c. They return to the firing point; the squad leader takes 
charge of the squad and causes the men to resume their 
firing positions. 

d. The squad leader gives the command load, cautioning, 
" — rounds." 

e. The squad leader designates the target orally. Refer- 
ence to panels to indicate direction should not be allowed in 
the designation. To complete the fire order, the squad 
leader adds: COMMENCE FIRING. 

/. When the squad has completed firing, the squad leader 
commands: CEASE FIRING, CLEAR RIFLES. The squad 
then examines the target. The target panel is scored and 
marked with the squad number. 

g. The instructor holds a short critique after each exercise. 

■ 189. Scoring. — o. Concentrated, fire. — In concentrated fire 
the sum of the value of the hits within the two zones is the 
score for the exercise. For convenience of scoring and com- 
parison, 100 is fixed as the maximum score. Any method of 
scoring and of distribution of ammunition among members 
of the squad may be used. The following examples based on 
firing 50 rounds are given as suggested methods: 

(1) Value of each hit in 50-percent zone, 2. 

(2) Value of each hit in 75-percent zone, 1. 

b. Distributed fire. — A method of scoring for distributed 
fire of the squad on a target of width is as follows: 

(1) Value of each hit in 50 -percent zone, 2. 

(2) Value of each hit in 75-percent zone, 1. 

(3) Value of each distribution space (if target is divided 
into 10 equal spaces) , 10. 

<4> The score for distribution, plus the value of all hits, 
divided by two is the score for the exercise. 

168 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Mlgl8A2 190 

■ 190. Exercises. — The fire of the automatic rifleman, when 
armed with the Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, 
M1918A2, will be employed against targets on the landscape 
target appropriate to automatic rifle fire. 

a. No. 1, — (1) Purpose. — To teach target designation and 
to show the effect of concentrated fire. 

<2) Method. — The squad leader employs the fire of his 
squad at one point target indicated to him by the instructor. 

b. No. 2. — (1) Purpose. — To teach target designation and 
the division of fire on two points of concentration. 

(2) Method. — The instructor indicates two point targets 
to the squad leader giving the nature of each. The squad 
leader applies the Are of one of his automatic riflemen on one 
target, and the Are of the other automatic rifleman on the 
other. The scoring will be as for concentrated Are in each 
target, the several scores being combined in totals for the 
score for the exercises. 

c. No. 3. — (1) Purpose. — To teach target designation and 
Are control in diverting part of the Are of the automatic rifle 
squad to a suddenly appearing target. 

(2) Method. — The instructor indicates a point target to 
the squad leader. After Aring has commenced, the instruc- 
tor indicates and gives the nature of a new target to a Aank. 
The squad leader applies the fire of his squad to the first 
target. When the second target is indicated, he shifts the 
fire of one of his automatic riflemen, as directed by the in- 
structor, from the first to the second target. 

d. No. 4. — (1) Purpose. — To teach target designation, fire 
control, and the method of searching a small area with auto- 
matic rifle Are, 

(2) Method.. — The instructor indicates and gives the nature 
of two point targets. After firing has commenced, the in- 
structor indicates a small area in which an enemy group is 
under cover. The squad leader applies the Are of his squad 
on the two point targets. When the area target is indicated, 
the squad leader is told to shift the Are of an automatic 
riAeman to that target. 

e. No. 5. — (1) Purpose. — To teach the application of auto- 
matic rifle Are on an enemy group marching in formation, 
the Are control necessary to obtain fire for surprise effect, 

169 



190-192 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

and to show the effect of automatic fine Are on troops in 
formation. 

(2) Method. — The instructor indicates to the squad leader 
a target that represents a small group of the enemy marching 
in approach march formation, formation for patrol, or the 
like; the enemy not being aware of the presence of the squad. 
The squad leader applies the fire of his squad; his instructions 
must result in the simultaneous opening of Are of both auto- 
matic rifles and the distribution of Are over the entire target. 
The assignment of one of his automatic riflemen to fire at 
the rear half of the target, and the other automatic rifleman 
at the forward half, is a satisfactory method of distributing 
fire over such target. 

Section VII 

FIELD TARGET FIRING 

■ 191. General. — The training in this step is similar to that 
given the soldier in landscape target firing, but with the added 
feature of firing the Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, 
M1918A2, at field targets at unknown ranges, the use of 
cover, fire control under more usual conditions, and range 
estimation. In order to make this training progressive, the 
automatic rifleman is first given an opportunity to fire at 
partially exposed field targets of unknown ranges. As a 
final stage in this instruction he will be required to fire at 
some targets which are concealed from view but exposed to 
fire. Individuals preferably receive this training in the squad 
or in the team. 

■ 192. Scope op Training. — a. Progressive training. — The in- 
clusion Of the training in moving from an approach march 
formation or place of concealment to firing positions is pri- 
marily to teach the automatic rifleman the proper use of 
cover and selection of firing positions and to connect up the 
technique of applying and controlling collective fire with 
other prerequisite allied subjects. 

b. Firing positions and representation of enemy, — In bat- 
tle a unit is not deployed with individuals abreast and at 
regular Intervals apart. The selection of individual and team 
positions is governed by the field of fire, cover, or concealment 

170 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 193-193 

while firing, cover of approach to those positions, Are con- 
trol, and the nature of targets. The representation of the 
enemy will conform to irregular battle formations. Safety 
precautions necessary in firing at field targets are given in 
paragraph 193. 

c. Use of cover. — (1) The individual use of cover and con- 
cealment is taught in FM 7-6. In training in firing at field 
targets the fundamentals are the same. 

(2) In seeking cover in a firing position men may move a 
few yards in any direction, but they must not be allowed to 
bunch together behind concealment which does not afford 
protection from. fire. They avoid positions which will mask 
the fire of others or cause their own fire to be dangerous to 
other men of their unit, 

d. Marksmanship applied. — (1) The fundamentals of 
known distance automatic rifle marksmanship are followed 
in this training insofar as they are applicable to field condi- 
tions. 

(2) The fundamentals of known distance marksmanship 
should be applied to the technique of fire and to combat in a 
common-sense way. For example, it will often be imprac- 
ticable to keep the sights blackened, and the soldier is per- 
mitted to take advantage of trees, rocks, or any other rest 
for his weapon which will make his fire more accurate. 

e. Use of battle sight. — The battle sight corresponds to a 
sight setting of approximately 300 yards. It is used on targets 
from to 600 yards when time is lacking for setting the sight 
or in firing at moving targets. 

■ 193. Safety Precautions. — a. In general the safety pre- 
cautions used on the known distance ranges apply with equal 
force to instruction in the technique of fire. Safety of per- 
sonnel is of primary importance in conducting exercises which 
require the firing of service ammunition. To this end exer- 
cises should be drawn to conform to the state of training of 
the units concerned. 

b. The officer in charge of an exercise is responsible for 
the safety of the firing; it is his duty to initiate and enforce 
such precautions as he deems necessary under existing condi- 
tions. No other officer can modify his instructions without 
assuming the responsibility for the safety of the firing. 

171 



193-195 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

c. Before permitting fire to be opened, all men will be on a 
general line. No man will be permitted to be ahead of or in 
rear of this line a distance greater than one -half the interval 
between himself and the man next to him. For example, if 
the interval between men is 10 paces, then no man will be 
more than 5 paces ahead of or behind the man next to him. 

d. Ball ammunition will not be loaded until each man is in 
the firing position and the officer in charge has insured that 
it is safe for each man to fire. Upon completion of firing, the 
officer in charge will cause all rifles to be unloaded, inspected, 
and ammunition collected. 

e. Upon completion of the day's firing, automatic rifles and 
belts will be inspected by an officer to insure that no ammuni- 
tion remains in them. 

/. Special precautions will be taken to insure that the range 
is clear before ammunition is issued. 

g. During the firing of exercises automatic rifles will be 
pointed in the direction of the targets at all times. Special 
vigilance is required to enforce this rule while men are using a 
cleaning rod to remove an obstruction from the chamber. 

■ 194. Situations for Firing Exercises, — a. Each exercise 
should be initiated by a unit — 

(1) Already deployed in a firing position. 

(2) Halted in approach march formation or in a place of 
concealment with observers out. 

b. m the first case, each automatic rifleman should be in 
a selected firing position, special attention being paid to indi- 
vidual cover and concealment. 

c. In the seeond case, squad leaders select the firing posi- 
tions for their automatic riflemen; they conduct their squads 
forward by concealed routes and send the automatic riflemen 
to their firing positions by individual directions. Occupation 
of the initial firing position of a unit is done with the mini- 
mum of exposure. 

■ 195. Critique. — At the completion of the firing of any 
exercise the instructor should conduct a critique of that exer- 
cise with the firing unit. A suggested form for such a critique 
is as follows: 

a. Purpose of the exercise. 

172 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M19IHA2 195-196 

&. Approach and occupation of the firing position (indi- 
vidual concealment and cover) . 

c. Fire order (particular reference being made to the target 
designation element) . 

d. Time required to open fire (from the time the leader is 
told the range is clear) . 

e. Rate of fire. 
/. Fire control. 

g. Effect of the fire (upon completion of firing and the 
range is clear, the targets are scored). 

h. Performance of the unit satisfactory or unsatisfactory. 

■ 196. Suggested Exercises. — a. No. 1. — (1) Purpose. — Prac- 
tice in fire orders, application of the fire of a squad in position, 
fire control, proper individual concealment In the occupation 
of the firing position. 

(2) Method. — Enemy represented by one group of targets 
exposed to fire but partially concealed from view, requiring 
a simple fire order. Squad leader is shown the targets (per- 
sonnel with flag) and safety limits for firing position of the 
squad. When the squad leader fully understands the loca- 
tion and nature of the target and the instructor informs him 
that the range is clear, he will load ball ammunition, give 
the fire order, and fire the problem. The range should be 
estimated by eye and the target designated by oral descrip- 
tion. 

b. No. 2. — (1) Purpose. — Practice in fire order, application 
of the fire of a squad armed with the Browning automatic 
rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, on a linear target, fire control, 
proper deployment and individual concealment in the occu- 
pation of the firing position, engagement of a surprise target. 

(2) Method. — Silhouette targets representing an enemy 
squad deployed in a firing position are partially concealed 
from view but exposed to fire. A screen behind the targets 
is marked with distribution spaces to give squad credit for 
the shots that did not hit the targets but which would have 
had an effect on an enemy. Squad is in rear of the firing 
position; squad leader is shown the linear target (by flag) 
and then conducts squad forward and disposes it in a con- 
cealed firing position. When squad leader is told the range 

250608" — 40 12 173 



196 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

is clear he will engage the target with surprise fire. A sur- 
prise target, well to the fiank of the first target, representing 
an enemy machine gun, appears shortly after the squad has 
engaged the linear target. The squad leader is told the 
amount of fire to shift to the surprise target. In addition to 
the suggested form of critique in paragraph 195, proper dis- 
tribution of fire on a linear target and the engagement of 
the surprise target should be discussed. 

c. No. 3. — (1) Purpose. — Practice in the application of au- 
tomatic rifle fire over a small area in which an enemy is 
concealed. 

(2) Methods — Targets are placed within a small area, 
exposed to fire but concealed from view. An automatic rifle - 
man is directed to search that area with fire. He distributes 
his fire throughout the length and breadth of the area. 

d. No. 4. — (1) Purpose. — Practice in firing at moving 
targets. 

(2) Method. — Automatic riflemen fire individually at tar- 
gets carried on long sticks by men in the pits of a class A 
range. The men in the pits are each assigned a space, the 
width of about five regular range target spaces, in which 
they walk continuously back and forth. By whistle signal, 
targets are exposed to the firing line for 5 seconds and then 
concealed for 5 seconds. Targets are exposed once for each 
shot to be fired. On the firing line one man is assigned to 
each target. Ranges of 200 or 300 yards are best suited for 
this class of firing. 



174 



CHAPTER 6 

ADVICE TO INSTRUCTORS 

Paragraphs 

Section I. General 197 

n. Mechanical training 168-199 

III, Marksmanship, known distance targets 200-213 

IV. Marksmanship, air targets 214-218 

V. Technique of Are 219-226 

Section I 

GENERAL 

3 197. Purpose. — The provisions of this chapter are to be ac- 
cepted as a guide and will not be considered as having the 
force of regulations. They are particularly applicable to 
emergency conditions when large bodies of troops are being 
trained under officers and noncommissioned officers who are 
not thoroughly familiar with approved training methods. 

Section II 

MECHANICAL TRAINING 

■ 198. Conduct of Training. — a. As a general rule instruc- 
tion is so conducted as to insure the uniform progress of the 
platoon and company. 

b. The instructor briefly explains the subject to be taken up 
and demonstrates it himself or with a trained assistant. 

c. The instructor then causes one man in each squad or 
subgroup to perform the step while he again explains it. 

d. The instructor next causes all members of the squads or 
subgroups to perform the step, checked by their noncommis- 
sioned officers. This is continued until all men are proficient 
in the particular operation, or until those whose progress is 
slow have been placed under special instructors. 

e. Subsequent steps are taken up in like manner during the 
instruction period. 

■ 199. Position Stoppage Set-tips. — a. First position, stop- 
pages. — (1) Place blown primer between lips of magazine and 

175 



199—201 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191EA2 

top cartridge. Let bolt go forward. Replace magazine. An- 
swer; Failure to feed — change magazine. 

(2) Place empty cartridge case in chamber. Let bolt go 
forward — replace magazine. Answer: Insufficient gas — cor- 
rect gas adjustment. 

b. Second position stoppage. — Place blown primer on face 
of bolt or up in locking recess. Let bolt go forward. Re- 
place magazine. Answer: Obstruction — remove blown primer. 

c. Third position stoppage. — Cock rifle, then place ruptured 
case in chamber. Replace magazine. Let bolt go forward. 
Answer : Call for ruptured cartridge extractor. 

d. Fourth position stoppage. — (1) Cock rifle. Insert empty 
cartridge 1 case in chamber. Replace loaded magazine. Have 
man pull trigger. Answer: Call for cleaning rod — examine 
extractor. 

(2) Set change lever on "safe." 

Section III 
MARKSMANSHIP, KNOWN DISTANCE TARGETS 

* 200. Training. — a. General. — CI) Training Is preferably 
organized and conducted as outlined in paragraphs 52 and 53. 
Officers should generally be considered as the instructors of 
their units. As only one step is taken up at a time, and as 
each step begins with a lecture and a demonstration showing 
exactly what to do, the trainees, although not previously in- 
structed, can carry on the work under the supervision of the 
instructor. 

(2) It is advisable that personnel to fire be relieved from 
routine garrison duty during the period of preparatory marks- 
manship training and range practice with the automatic rifle. 

b. Place of assembly for lectures. — Any small ravine or 
cup-shaped area makes a good amphitheater for giving the 
lecture in case no suitable building is available. 

* 201. Assistant Instructors. — a. It is advantageous to have 
all officers and as many noncommissioned officers as possible 
trained in advance in the prescribed methods of instruction. 
When units are undergoing automatic rifle marksmanship 
training for the first time this is not always practicable. A 
good instructor can give a clear idea of how to carry on the 

179 



BHOWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191EA2 201-203 

work in his lecture and demonstration preceding each step. 
In the supervision of the work following the demonstration 
he can correct any mistaken ideas or misinterpretations. 

b. When an officer in eharge of automatic rifle instruction 
is conducting- successive organizations through target prac- 
tice, it is advisable to attach officers and noncommissioned 
officers of the units to follow to the first organization taking 
the course for the period of preparatory work and range find- 
ing:. These act as assistant instructors when their own. com- 
panies take up the work. Such assistants are particularly 
useful when one group is firing on the range and another is 
going through the preparatory exercises, both under the su- 
pervision of one instructor. 

■ 202. Equipment. — a. All equipment used In the preparatory 
exercises must be accurate and carefully made. One of the 
objects of these exercises is to cultivate a sense of exactness 
in the minds of the men undergoing instruction. They can- 
not be exact with poor equipment. 

b. The instructor should personally inspect the equipment 
for the preparatory exercises before the training begins. A set 
of model equipment should be prepared in advance by the 
instructor for the information and guidance of the organi- 
zation about to take up the preparatory work. The sighting 
bars must be made as described, and the hole representing 
the peep sight must be absolutely circular. If the sights are 
made of tin, the holes should be bored by a drill. Good rear 
sights can be made for the sighting bars by using cardboard 
and cutting the holes with a punch of the type used for cut- 
ting wads for 10- gage shotgun shells. Silhouettes painted 
on a white background are not satisfactory. The silhouette 
targets from the Ml 1,000-inch target pasted on tin or stiff 
backing make the best aiming points either for sighting and 
aiming exercises or for use in position and trigger manipu- 
lation exercises. 

H 203. Inspection op Rifles.. — No man is required to fire 
with an unserviceable or inaceurate rifle. All automatic 
rifles should be carefully inspected far enough in advance of 
the period of training to permit organization commanders to 
replace all inaccurate or defective rifles. Automatic rifles 

177 



203-205 BROWNING AUTOMATIC EIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

having badly pitted barrels are not accurate and. should not 
be used. 

■ 204. Ammunition: — The best ammunition available should 
be reserved for record firing, and the men should have a 
chance to learn their sight settings with that ammunition be- 
fore record practice begins. Ammunition of different makes 
and of different lots should not be used indiscriminately, 

■ 205. Organization of the Work. — a. In preparatory train- 
ing. — (1) The field upon which the preparatory work is to be 
given should be selected in advance and a section of it as- 
signed to each group. The equipment and apparatus for the 
■work should be on the ground and in place before the morning 
lecture is given, so that each group can move to its place and 
begin work immediately and without confusion. Figure 44 
shows a suggested organization for the work when a number 
of groups are undergoing instruction at the same time. 

(2) Each company should be organized in two lines, facing 
away from each other. In this way the instructors, whose 
position is normally between the lines, have all of their men 
under close supervision. 

(3) The arrangement of the equipment is as follows: 

Co) On each line are placed the sighting bars and rifle rests 
at sufficient intervals to permit efficient work. 

(5) Fifty feet from each line is placed a line of small boxes 
with blank paper tacked on one side, one box and one small 
sighting disk to each rifle rest. 

(c) Two hundred yards from each line is placed a line of 
frames suitable for use in making triangles at 200 yards, one 
frame to each squad. These frames have blank paper tacked 
or pasted on the front. A long range sighting disk is placed 
with each frame. Machine-gun targets make acceptable 
frames for this work. 

(4) In position and trigger manipulation exercises, targets 
should be placed at 1,000 inches and 200 yards. 

(5) When sufficient level ground is not available for the 
above arrangement, the organizations will have to vary from 
it in some particulars. It will nearly always be found, how- 
ever, that all of the work except making triangles at 200 yards 
can be carried on in two lines. 

178 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 205 

b. In range practice. — (1) The range work should be so 
organized that there is a minimum of lost time on the part 
of each man. Long periods of inactivity while awaiting a turn 
in the firing line should be avoided. For this reason the 
number of men on the range should be accommodated to the 
number of targets available. 

(2) As a general rule six men per target is about the 
maximum and four men per target the minimum for efficient 
handling. 



200 yd aiming targets 

□ cd nz\ e=t 



Aiming *- " ; -*■*-, "' —"—, li ~* 

—□ ■ □ □ □ i 

Croup Group 

□ m np arr 



Rifle 
Rests - 



Center line. One-half 



company on each side 



Group 



Group 



□ □ □ n J 



CZl 



m ep m tnj-, 



riarrKE 44. — Portion of field laid out for sighting and aiming 
exercises. 



179 



206 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 



■ 206. Model Schedules. — The following schedules are sug- 
gested for guides in a course in preparatory marksmanship 
and firing course A: 

a. Preparatory training. 



Subject 



Purpose or preparatory marksmanship training 

First step: Sighting and alining exercises— 

Explanation and demonstration 

First sighting and aiming exercise 

Sight blackening and second sighting and aiming exorcise 

Third sighting and aiming exercise-. - 

Second step: Position exercises — 

Explanation and demonstration 

Gun sling adjustment; trigger slack; holding the breath; 

general rules for positions _. 

Prone position, bipod rest 

Silting position , 

Kneeling position 

Assault Are 

Review of positions..- 

Sight setting and aiming exercises . .. _ . __. 

Third step: Trigger manipulation exercises — 

Explanation and demonstration 

Trigger manipulation exercise, prone position with bipod rest 

Trigger manipulation exercise, sitting ___ . . . 

Trigger manipulation exercise, kneeling. .._ _. _ 

Effect of wind ; sight changes; use of score hook i , _ 

Examination of all men by section and platoon leaders in all 
preparatory subjects and exercises 2 .._._. - 



Time 
allotted 



nay 




2d 



1 The use of the score hook and effects of light and wind will be taken up with 
men who are not actually on the line undergoing instruction. 

2 f jack of proficiency disclosed by examination will be corrected at once by addi- 
tional instruction. 



180 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 206-208 

b. Range practice, course A. 



Subject 

Automatic fire exercises, IjOOO-ineh mnge 

Exercises in replacing magazines .. 

Fire tables J and II (chcIi score preceded hy n simulated run for 
each man). 



Fire tables III ant] TV (each score presided hy *i simulated run) 



Fire table V (each score preceded by a simulated run). . 
Fire table. VI (each score preceded by a simulated run) . 



Record practice (course A) — Fire table Vil_ 



Time al- 
lotted 



Htmrs 



Day 



3d. 



4th. 



5th. 



6th. 



Note.— The time allotted for firing the known distance rnngo is based on six 
orders per target and a simulated run preceding each practice for each man. 

e. For courses B, C, and, D— The preparatory exercises and 
1,000-inch firing are the same as in course A. All other firing 
is conducted in a manner similar to course A, reducing the 
time accordingly. 

■ 207. Lecttjhes and Demonstrations. — a. Lectures may be 
given at the beginning of each step of the Instruction to the 
assembled automatic riflemen of the unit undergoing training 
to facilitate the work. 

&. The notes on lectures which follow are to be used merely 
as a guide. The points which experience has shown to be 
the ones which usually require elucidation and demonstration 
are placed in headings in italics. The notes which follow 
each heading are merely to assist the instructor in preparing 
his lecture. 

c. It is important to show the men undergoing instruction, 
by explanation and demonstration, just how to go through the 
exercises and to tell them why they are given these exercises. 

■ 208. First Lecture: Sighting and Aiming. — a. The group 
is assembled in a suitable outdoor location or in a building. 



131 



208 BROWSING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI918A2 

b. The following equipment is necessary for the demonstra- 
tion: 

1 sighting bar. 

1 automatic rifie rest. 

1 automatic rifle. 

1 small sighting disk. 

1 long range sighting disk. 

1 small box. 

Material for blackening sights. 

c. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the first lecture: 

(1) Value of automatic rifle fire. — (a) The automatic rifle 
greatly increases the fire effect of the rifie platoon. 

(to) Individual proficiency consists in the automatic rifle- 
man's ability to place a large volume of accurate fire upon 
appropriate targets. 

(2) Object of target practice. — (a) To attain this indi- 
vidual proficiency. 

<&) To show riflemen how to teach others, 
(c) To train future instructors. 

(3) Method of instruction. — (a) The instruction is divided 
into steps. The man is taught each step and practices it 
before going to the next step. When he has been taught all 
of the steps he is taken to the known distance range to apply 
what he has learned. 

(&) Careful instruction in the various preparatory steps 
will be of material benefit in range practice. 

(c!> Explain coach and pupil method. Why used. 

(4) Reflecting attitude of instructor. — If the instructor Is 
interested, enthusiastic, and energetic, the men will follow his 
example. 

(5) Examination of men on preparatory work. — Each man 
is examined in the preparatory work before going to the 
range. An outline of this examination is given in paragraph 
72. 

(6) Method of marking blank form. — Explain blank form, 
paragraph 72. Explain marking system by the use of a black- 
board, if available. 

(7) Five essentials to automatic rifle marksmanship. 
Correct sighting and aiming. 

Correct position. 

182 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 208-209 

Correct trigger manipulation. 

Correct application of automatic Are fundamentals. 

Knowledge of proper sight adjustments. 

(8) Today's work.—, First step, sighting 1 and aiming. 

(9) Demonstration of first sighting and aiming exercise. — 
Require a previously trained group to demonstrate just how 
this exercise is carried on. 

(10) Blackening the sights. — Explain why this is done and 
demonstrate it. 

Cll) Demonstration of second sighting and aiming exer- 
cise. — Require a previously trained group to demonstrate the 
second sighting and aiming exercise. 

(12) Demonstration of third sighting and aiming exercise. 

(a) Require a previously trained group to demonstrate the 
third sighting and aiming exercise. 

(b) Show how the group is organized by the coach and 
pupil method so as to keep each man busy all the time. 

(13) Long range shot group work. — Show the class the disk 
for 200 -yard shot group work. Explain how this work is 
carried on and why. Show some simple system of signals that 
may be used. 

(14) Final word. — (a) Start keeping your blank form 
today. 

(f>) Organize your work so that all men are busy at all 
times. 

(15) Are there any questions? 

(16) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

H 209. Second Lecture: Position. — a. The following equip- 
ment is necessary for the demonstrations in this lecture: 

1 automatic rifle with sling, 

1 box with small aiming target. 
b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the second lecture : 

(1) Importance of each step. — (c) Each step includes all 
that has preceded. 

(b) Each step must be thoroughly learned arid practiced or 
the instruction will not be a success. 

(2) Necessity for correct positions. — Correct and comfort- 
able positions are essentials of automatic rifle marksmanship,. 

183 



209 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE. CALIBER .30, MI9I8AZ 

The prone position is especially important. Instruction in 
positions involves correct aiming. 

(3) Gun sling. — State that the sling is used in the kneeling 
and sitting positions but not in the prone or in the antiair- 
craft firing position. Demonstrate the adjustments of the 
loop and hasty sling and explain why they are used. 

<4) Taking up the slack. — Show the class the slack on the 
trigger. Explain why it is taken up in the position exercises. 
(Cannot begin to press the trigger until the slack has been 
taken up.) 

(5) Holding the breath. — Explain the correct manner of 
holding the breath and have the class practice it a few times. 
Explain how the coach observes the pupil's breathing by 
watching his back. 

(6) Position, of the thumb. — May be either over the stock 
or on top of the stock but never along the side of the stock. 
Explain why. 

(7) Joints of the finger. — Trigger may be pressed with 
first or second joint. Second joint preferable when it can be 
done conveniently. 

(8) Prone position. — (a) Demonstrate correct prone posi- 
tion with bipod rest calling attention to the elements which 
go to make up a correct prone position; body straight behind 
piece, legs spread well apart, position of the butt on the 
shoulder, position of the hands on the rifle, position of cheek 
against the stock, position of elbows. Demonstrate adjusting 
the bipod. 

(b) Mention t-he usual faults which occur in prone position 
and especially the fault of having the body at an angle to the 
piece. 

(c) Demonstrate the correct position again. 

(9) Sitting position. — Demonstrate in the same manner as 
described above for the prone position, 

(10) Kneeling position. — Demonstrate in the same manner 
as described above for the prone position. 

(11) Today's work; position exercises. — (a) Demonstrate 
the duties of a coach in a position exercise calling attention 
to each item, 

(b) Demonstrate the position of the coach. Always placed 
so that he can watch the pupil's finger and eye. 

1B4 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 209-210 

(e) Show how the instructor organizes a group by employ- 
ing the coach and pupil method so as to keep every man 
occupied. 

<d) Continue the long range shop group work today. 

(12) Do not press the trigger today. — Take up the slack In 
these exercises but do not press the trigger. 

(13) Keep blank forms wp to date, — Examine each man 
in the group at the end of the day's work and assign him a 
mark. 

(14) Are there any questions? 

(15) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

■ 210. Third Lecture: Trigger Manipulation. — a. The fol- 
lowing equipment is necessary for the demonstration: 

1 automatic rifle. 

1 box with small aiming target. 
b. The following- subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the third lecture: 

(1) Trigger TnanipuZation. important. — Explain that trigger 
manipulation for the automatic rifle differs materially from 
the procedure employed in firing the Springfield or Ml rifle 
or the caliber .30 heavy machine gun. Marksmanship with 
the Browning automatic rifle, caliber ,30, M1918A2, embraces 
two classes of fire, both of which are obtained by appropriate 
trigger manipulation with the automatic rifle set to fire at its 
slow cyclic rate. These two classes of fire and the trigger 
manipulation for each will be separately discussed. 

(a) Firing single shots. — Single shots are fired by taking 
up the slack and pressing the trigger, being careful to main- 
tain the alinement of the sights while the bolt Is going home. 
An immediate release of the trigger is required when the bolt 
is released. Most men are able to attain this quick trigger 
release with a little practice. Explain to the group that if 
sometimes two or three shots instead- of a single shot are 
obtained it makes no serious difference. Inform the group 
that in such event in qualification practice the several shots 
which are thus fired are included in the score. Explain that 
this is necessary because the weapon is not equipped with an 
adjustment for semiautomatic Are. Explain that single shots 
fired as explained above give a very effective form of field 

185 



210 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEB .30, M191BA2 

firing when it is necessary to conserve ammunition or for 
other tactical reasons. 

(b) Firing short bursts. — Short bursts are fired by taking 
up the slack and pressing the trigger, retaining the pressure 
for the length of burst desired. Short bursts of three to five 
rounds are utilized in the marksmanship courses. Most men 
are able to manipulate the trigger to obtain such bursts with 
a little practice. Explain that these short bursts constitute 
the type of fire employed in the field when it is desired to 
take full tactical advantage of the fire power of this weapon. 
Explain that longer bursts would be seldom profitable in field 
firing and are not justified by the ammunition supply avail- 
able to this weapon in the platoon, 

(2) Pulsations of body. — In firing single shots in the sitting 
and kneeling positions, the natural movements of the body 
and its pulsations produce more or less parallel movement 
of the automatic rifle. These are not sufficient to affect the 
shot, and the alinement of the sights is maintained as steadily 
as possible without worrying about these small and natural 
displacements of the aim as the trigger is pressed and the 
bolt is going home. 

(3) Aim and hold. — Any man can easily learn to hold a 
good aim for 5 to ID seconds, which is a much longer period 
than is necessary to fire a well-aimed single shot. 

(4) Calling the shot. — Explain calling the shot and why it 
is done. (See par. 65d.) 

(5) Today's vx>rk; trigger manipulation exercise. — (a) 
Demonstrate the duties of a coach in, the trigger manipula- 
tion exercises by calling attention to each item. 

(b) The work is carried on as in position exercises with 
the pressing of the trigger added. 

(c) Practice trigger manipulation for firing bursts and for 
firing single shots in the prone position only this morning. 

(d) Finish up the making of long range shot groups today. 
(61 .Keep blank form up to date. — Examine each man in 

the group at the end of the day's work and assign him a 
mark, 

(7) Are there any questions? 

(8) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

186 



browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, m1918a2 211-212 

■ 211. Fourth Lecture: Automatic Ptre and Replacing 
Magazines. — a. The following equipment is necessary for the 
demonstration: 

1 automatic rifle, 

2 magazines. 

1 U. S. rifle, caliber .30, Ml target. 
&. The following: subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the fourth lecture: 

(1) Meaning of automatic fire. — Repeat the fact that au- 
tomatic fire employs short bursts and the slow cyclic rate. 
Rapidity in sustained fire comes from skill in changing mag- 
azines. 

(2) Keeping the eye an the target. — Explain the advan- 
tages of this and how it gains time. 

(3) Application in war. — Explain the advantages of keep- 
ing the eye on the target in combat. 

(4) Automatic fire exercises. — (a) Explain how the exer- 
cise is carried on. 

(b) Demonstrate and call attention to each item. 

(5) Replacing magazine drill. — (a) Explain how the exer- 
cise is carried on. 

(W Demonstrate and call attention to each item. 

(6) Today's work; automatic fire exercise and. replacing 
magazine drill. — The remaining time today will be given to 
automatic fire exercises and drill in replacing magazines. 
The exercises will be repeated in short periods until each man 
is proficient. 

(7) Keep blank forms up to date. — Examine each man in 
the squad at the end of the day's work and assign him a 
mark, 

(8) Are there any questions? 

(9) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

8 212. Fifth Lecture: Effect of Wind and Light; Sight 
Changes; Score Book. — a. This part of the preparatory in- 
struction can be given on any day on which the weather 
forces the work to be done indoors. If no bad weather occurs, 
this work should follow the fourth lecture. 



187 



212 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

b. The following equipment is necessary for the demon- 
strations: 

1 D target (to be mounted on a frame and marked with 

the proper windage lines), 
5 spotters that can readily be stuck into the target. 
Rifle and score book for each man. 

c. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the fifth lecture: 

(1) Targets. — (a) Explain the divisions on the target and 
give the dimensions of each. 

(b) Call attention to windage lines. Have class compare 
them with diagram in the score book. Explain why lines 
are farther apart as the range increases. 

(2) Weather conditions. — All weather conditions disre- 
garded except wind. 

(3) Wind. — (a) Explain how the direction of the wind is 
described. 

(b) Explain how the velocity of the wind is estimated. 
(e) Explain the effect of wind. This effect increases with 
the distance from the target. 

(4) Windage for first shot. — Show windage diagram in the 
individual score book and explain its use as set forth in para- 
graph 68. 

(5) Wind gage rule. — state rule and explain it (par. €8) . 

(6) Elevation rule.— State rule and explain it (par. €9) . 

(7) Light. — Explain effect. 

(8) Score ~book. — (a) Explain use of score book on range. 
(&) Have class open score books and explain items of 

keeping score. 

(9) Exercises. — Give the class a number of small problems 
as a demonstration as to how the day's work is to be carried 
on. 

(10) Today's work. — (a) Study and practice in sight set- 
ting, sight changing, and use of score book. Instructors will 
work up problems for their groups. 

(b) Additional practice in the exercises of the preceding 
days. 

(11) Are there any questions? 

(12) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

188 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 213-215 

■ 213. Sixth Lecture: Range Practice. — This lecture and 
demonstration should immediately precede range firing. If 
the elass Is not too large it should be given on a firing point 
of the rifle range. 

a. The following equipment is necessary for the demon- 
strations: 

Material for blackening sight. 

1 automatic rifle with gun sling. 

Corrugated type dummy cartridges (par. 17). 

b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the sixth lecture. 

(1) Preparatory work applied.— Range practice is carried 
on practically the same as the preparatory exercises except 
that ball cartridges are used. 

(2) Coaching. — Coach watches the man not the target. 
Coaoh does not keep the score for the pupil. Pupil must make 
his own entries in his score book. Coach sees that he does 
this. 

(3) Officers and noncommissioned officers. — (a) Supervise 
and prompt the men acting as coaches. 

(6) Personally coach pupils who are having difficulty in 
making good scores. 

(4) Spotters. — Use in firing with and without time limit. 

(5) Read safety precautions. 

Section IV 
MARKSMANSHIP, AIR TARGETS 

■ 214. Preliminary Preparation. — a. The officer in charge of 
automatic rifle antiaircraft training should be thoroughly 
familiar with the subject; should have detailed at least three 
officers as assistant instructors ; and should train the assistant 
instructors and a demonstration group consisting of at least 
16 men before the first training period. 

b. He should inspect the range and equipment in sufficient 
time prior to the first training period to permit correction of 
deficiencies. 

■ 215. Description of Miniature Range, — a. Horizontal tar- 
get- — This target is designed to represent a sleeve target 
towed by an airplane flying parallel to the firing point. 

250606° — 40 13 189 



216-216 BBOWKINO AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

b. Double diving and cUmbincf target. — This target is in two 
sections. The right section is designed to represent a sleeve 
taget towed so as to pass obliquely across the front of the 
firing line in the manner of an airplane diving, if run from 
left to right, or climbing, if run from right to left. The left 
section is the same but represents an airplane diving from 
right to left and climbing from left to right. 

c. Overhead target. — This target is designed to represent a 
sleeve target towed by an airplane which is approaching the 
firing line and will pass overhead, or when run in the opposite 
direction represents an airplane that has passed over the 
firing line from the rear. 

d. Size and speed of silhouette. — The black silhouette is a 
representation at 500 inches of a 15-foot sleeve at a range of 
330 yards. It is 7.5 inches long. The speed of the silhouette 
should be between 15 and 20 feet per second. This speed 
represents that of an airplane flying between 150 and 200 
miles per hour at a range of 200 yards. The size and speed 
of the silhouette are based upon the time of flight of the 
caliber .22 bullet for 500 inches. This time of flight is ap- 
proximately 0.04 second. When the target is moving at a 
speed of 15 feet or 180 inches per second it will move 180 x .04 
or 7.2 inches. Therefore, in order to hit the silhouette the 
aim must be directed approximately one silhouette length in 
front of it. If two or three target length (silhouette lengths) 
leads are used, the shot will hit in the appropriate scoring 
spaces. This does not hold equally true on the overhead 
target. If the shot is fired when the range is less than 500 
inches from the flrer, the lead necessary will be less than 
one target length. 

■ 216. Preparatory Exercises. — a. A method of conducting 
the preparatory exercises is given in paragraph 133. 

b. Each assistant instructor is assigned a target and con- 
ducts the preparatory training and tiring of all groups on 
his target. 

c. In preparatory training coach and pupils should change 
places frequently. 

d. Forty -five minutes at each type of target should be suf- 
ficient to train each soldier in the preparatory exercises. 



190 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 216-217 

e. A detail of 1 noncommissioned officer and 4 or 6 men 
should be provided to operate each type of target. 

■ 217. Miniature Range Piking. — a. (1) Caliber .22 rifle. — 
(a) The rifle should have the open sight. 

(b) Two magazines for each caliber .22 rifle should be 
provided. 

(c) Ammunition should be available immediately in rear 
of the firing line at each type of target. 

(d) Coaches should load magazines as they become empty. 

(e) Scorers should be detailed for each type of target. 
After each score is fired, they score the target. They call off 
the number of hits made on each silhouette and pencil the 
shot holes. The coaches enter the scores on the firer's score 
card. 

(/) A platform permitting the scorer to score the target 
should be provided for each type of target. 

(?) To stimulate interest, the instruction can be con- 
cluded with a competition between individuals, squads, or 
training groups. 

(ft) Targets as shown on figure 45 may be used on non- 
overhead targets for group firing or competition. Only one 
target length lead may be used in firing on this target. 

(2) Considerable supervision is required in order to main- 
tain target operation at the proper speed. This speed is 
necessary because the lead is based upon a speed of from 15 
to 20 feet per second. 

(?) Safety precautions must be constantly observed. 

(k) Preparatory exercises using the caliber .22 rifle precede 
firing that weapon. 

(2) Browning automatic rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2. — If the 
size of the danger area permits, this rifle is fired on the 
miniature range. Such firing is conducted in the same man- 
ner as with the caliber .22 rifle, with the following exceptions : 

(a) The battle sight only is used. 

(b) The lead necessary to hit the black silhouette is ap- 
proximately 2.5 inches. This is due to the difference in the 
time of flight of the caliber .30 and caliber ,22 bullets for 
500 inches. The time of flight of the caliber .30 bullet for 500 
inches is 0.015 second. When the target is operated at the 
speed of 15 or 20 feet per second, the silhouette will move 

191 



217-218 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 

approximately 2.5 Inches during the time of flight of the 
bullet. 

b. Using the battle sight the line of aim is lower than the 
trajectory of the bullet. Therefore it will be necessary to aim 
low in order to hit the silhouette. 

c. Men must be constantly cautioned to keep the weight of 
the body forward. This is to prevent them from being pushed 
over by the recoil of the weapon. 



-Ui'i- 



L 



T&K 



PIG0BE 45. 

d. Preparatory exercises using the Browning automatic 
rifle, caliber .30, M1918A2, precede firing that -weapon. 

■ 218. Towed Target Firing. — «,. Range organization. — (1) 
Individual firing at a towed target being impracticable, all 
members of a rifle platoon, including both rifles and automatic 
rifles, are usually constituted as a group for such firing, A 

192 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 218 

group the size of a platoon is the most convenient group for 
such firing. 

(2) An ammunition line should be established 10 yards in 
rear of the firing line. Small tables at the rate of 1 per 10 
men in a firing group are desirable. 

(3) Immediately in rear of the ammunition line the ready 
line should be established. 

(4) The first platoon or similar group to fire is deployed 
along the ready line with each individual in rear of his place 
on the firing line. Other platoons or similar groups are 
similarly deployed in a series of lines in rear of the first unit 
to fire. 

(5) Upon command of the offleer in charge, the group on 
the ready line moves forward to the firing line securing am- 
munition en route; other groups close up. 

(6) Upon completion of firing by one group it moves off 
the firing line passing around the flanks of the ready line so 
as not to interfere with the group moving forward. 

(7) An ammunition detail sufficient to issue ammunition to 
groups as they move forward to the firing line and to collect 
unflred ammunition from the group which just completed 
firing should be provided. These two operations should be 
performed simultaneously. Unfired ammunition is delivered 
to the statistical officer. 

(8) The officer in charge should have at least three assist- 
ants, two safety officers and one statistical officer. 

b. Ammunition. — (1) Ball or tracer ammunition may be 
used. Tracer ammunition is useful to show the groups wait- 
ing to fire the size and density of the cone of fire delivered 
by the firing group. 

(2) Tracer ammunition will assist the officer in charge 
in verifying the lead announced in the fire order. It also 
provides a means of checking the Brer's estimate of the lead 
ordered. 

c. Technique of antiaircraft fire. — (1) Leads. — The lead 
used in the technique of antiaircraft fire described in para- 
graph 130b is the average of two theoretical extremes. For 
example: If the maximum slant range to a passing airplane 
is 600 yards and the minimum slant range is 300 yards, the 
lead used would be that required for a slant range of 450 

193 



218 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1910A2 

yards. Fire is delivered with one fixed lead in order to 
simplify the procedure. Experience indicates such a tech- 
nique is readily taught and that it is effective. The lead 
table given below may be helpful. It is based upon a 15-foot 
sleeve towed at 200 miles per hour and caliber .30 M2 
ammunition. 

Lead 
Slant range: required 

100 2 

200 5 

300 8 

400 11 

500 14 

600 ^ 18 

(2) Fire distribution. — The usual technique of Are is de- 
scribed In paragraph 130. If time and ammunition allow- 
ances permit, other methods may also be taught. 

(3) Variable lead method. — (a) In this method the auto- 
matic rifleman fires each round with a different lead. The 
maximum lead is used when the target enters and again 
when it leaves the firing area. The minimum lead is used 
when the target is directly opposite the firing line. Example: 
If three rounds are to be fired as the sleeve target passes 
across the front of the firing line, the first round is fired 
shortly after the target enters the firing area; the second 
round is fired when the target is near the center of the firing 
area; the third round Is fired shortly before the sleeve leaves 
the firing area. The fire order given by the officer in charge 

is: 1. SLEEVE TARGET APPROACHING FROM THE LEFT (RIGHT), 2. 
LOAD, 3. 14-18-14 TARGET LENGTH LEADS, 4. THREE ROUNDS, 5. 

COMMENCE FIRING. In this example it is expected that 
the three rounds will be fired at slant ranges of approximately 
500 yards, 300 yards, and 500 yards. 

(&) This method has given good results but is more difficult 
to apply than the prescribed method. 

<4) Safety precautious. — Safety precautions as given in 
paragraph 143 must be rigidly enforced. This requires con- 
stant supervision by the officer in charge. 



194 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M191SA2 218-220 

d. Record. — The results of all towed target firing should 
be recorded, and analyzed. The statistical officer should 
record the total number of rounds flred and the hits obtained 
on each target. If the number of hits falls below the number 
expected, the reason should be sought and explained to the 
men. On the other hand, when results are satisfactory the 
men should be impressed with the value of rifle antiaircraft 
fire. 

e. Estimating ranges. — <1> Training in estimating ranges 
of air targets is conducted by having individuals observe air- 
planes Hying at known ranges. The individual bases his esti- 
mate on the appearance of the airplane at key ranges. The 
following estimates, based on an 0-46 observation plane, 1936, 
will be useful : 

At 1,000 yards' range you can see the general outline of 
the plane; at 700 yards, the wheels, rudder, wing struts, and 
tail skid; at 500 yards, the antenna and small projections 
from the fuselage; at 200 yards, symbols and numbers — let- 
ters can be seen plainly. 

(2) A flying mission of from 1 to 2 hours is sufficient for 
the instruction of a large group in estimating ranges. 

Section V 

TECHNIQUE OF FIRE 

■ 219. General. — The instructor should secure necessary 
equipment, inspect ranges, detail and train necessary assist- 
ants, including demonstration units, prior to the first period 
of instruction. Instructors should use their initiative in. ar- 
ranging additional exercises in the application of the funda- 
mentals and methods herein contained. It should be ex- 
plained to trainees how the exercises used illustrate the 
methods in the technique of Are. Good work in the con- 
duct of the exercises as well as errors should be called to the 
attention of all trainees. 

■ 220. Range Estimations — a. A number of ranges to promi- 
nent points on the terrain should be measured so that a few 
minutes of each period can be devoted to range estimation. 

&. Range cards as shown below will be of assistance in 
figuring percentage of errors. 

1S5 



220 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEft .30, M191SA2 



RANGE ESTIMATION 



Name 

Company. 
Squad 



No. 


Esti- 
mate 


Correct 


% 


Bcmarks 


No. 


Esti- 
mate 


Correct 


% 


Ilemarks 


l 










21 










2 











22 


■ 









i 








23 






4 










24 










5 










25 










6 











28 










7 








27 










8 










28 










9 


— ■ 








2!) 










10 








30 










11 










31 










12 










32 
33 











13 
















14 










34 
30 











15 
















l(j 










38 










17 










37 











18 










38 








19 










30 
40 










20 



















CFront) 



196 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1918A2 220-221 

TAHLE FOR COMPUTING EEKOltS IN" RANGE ESTIMATION 



250. 

275 . 

300 . 

330- 

350- 

3B0. 

100. 

420. 

440, 

400- 

480 

500 

520. 

540- 

fifiO. 

580. 

600. 

620. 

640- 



U80-.. 
700. - 
720... 
740... 
7B0... 
780. - . 
800-.- 
850--- 
flOO— 
WiO--- 
1,000- 



RangR in yards 



Error in yards 



5 10 IB 20 afi 30 30 40 45 50 100 



10 



40 
38 
33 
30 
20 
20 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 
19 
19 
18 
IT 
17 
16 
16 
15 
15 
14 
14 
14 
13 
13 
13 
12 
1.1 
11 
10 



Note. — Example of thfi uso of this table: Suppose tbo correct moff! to be 6&5 yards 
and the estimated range to bo 63.5. The ' 'error in estimate' ' is consco.uerjl.ly 00 yards. 
Select two "errors in estimate" in the 700- yard space (tbo nearest to the correct range 
given in the table) w huso sum is liO yards, as 50 and 10. Add the percentages stiown 
thereunder, and the result will be approximately your error. In this case: 
7 plus 1 -8% 

(Bear) 
■ 221. Target Designation. — The time devoted ta target des- 
ignation should include careful instruction in target desig- 
nation by each of the three usual methods: use of tracer bul- 

197 



221-225 BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBEH .30, MI9JBA2 

lets; pointing; oral description. While more time is required 
to teach the third method, it must be impressed on the men 
that all of the methods are important and have their appli- 
cation. Instruction is preferably conducted on varied terrain. 

■ 222. Automatic Rifle Fire and Its Effect. — This step in 
instruction can best be covered by the use of a blackboard 
and several automatic riflemen firing tracer bullets to dem- 
onstrate the trajectory, danger space, dispersion, and classes 
of fire. 

■ 223. Application of Fire. — o. Sufficient time and explana- 
tion should be devoted to the method of fire distribution to 
insure that all men fully understand it and can explain it in 
their own words. 

b. A demonstration group simulating firing should suffice 
to show the technique employed in assault fire. 

■ 224. Landscape Takget Piking. — a. An explanation and 
demonstration will be necessary to show the technique and 
procedure of zeroing rifles and the firing of exercises on the 
landscape targets. 

b. Units should be given practical work in writing fire 
orders for targets on the landscape panels prior to their firing 
of any exercises. 

■ 225. Assault Fire. — a. After the completion of record prac- 
tice and subject to authorized ammunition allowances, all 
men who have completed record practice, with the exception 
of antiaircraft troops, may fire the following table: 

ASSAULT FIRE 



Hanste 
(yards) 


Time 
(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Remarfcs 


100 

300-25 


No limit... 
60 


10 
20 


Assault lire 

(par. 2250). 

do 


Assault fire . . 
di> 


Two magazines ol 10 
rounds each. (Fir« 
while steadily ad- 
vancing) 







198 



BROWNING AUTOMATIC RIFLE, CALIBER .30, M1913A2 225-226 

b. The target is a screen 10 feet lone and 3 feet high, with 
three prone silhouette targets placed 1 yard apart directly in 
front of the screen. After the firing each soldier marches up 
to the target to examine the effeets of his firing. 

■ 226. Field Target Firing. — a. The most difficult factor in 
the preparation of problems for field firing is the selection of 
the terrain which complies with the safety regulations con- 
tained in AR 750-10. A drawing should be made on a map 
showing all safety angles, target positions, and other required 
data. 

b. The appearance of the ordinary prone or kneeling 
silhouette (E or F target) depends a great deal upon the 
direction of the sun, the background of the targets, and the 
angle at which the targets are placed. The effect of solidity 
can be obtained by using two figures placed at right angles 
to one another. The effect of fire distribution on a linear 
target can be determined by using a screen of E targets nailed 
end to end. The screen should be located so as not to disclose 
the position of concealed targets. 

c. Maximum use should be made of the available terrain to 
permit the firing of as many squads from one firing position 
at one time as is possible. This firing should be controlled 
from a central location. Telephone communication between 
the firing point and the pits will facilitate this instruction. 
During this type of training, individuals and units should ap- 
proach and occupy their firing positions with due regard to 
cover and concealment, after which men are rearranged on 
the firing position according to the requirements of safety. 

d. When sufficient time and ammunition are available, 
platoon exercises should be conducted. 

e. About 60 to 70 percent of the score allotted for the grad- 
ing of units should be given for such parts of the exercise as 
the approach march and occupation of the firing position, 
fire orders, time required to open fire, rate of fire, and fire 
control. The remaining 30 or 40 percent should be given for 
the number of hits on the targets and the number of targets 
hit. 

/, A 13-week training schedule should include about 31 
hours for this instruction. 



199 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Accessories 38 46 

Advice to instructors, purpose 197 175 

Aiming and leading exercises (second step) 135 123 

Air targets 126 118 

Alina front sight 81 91 

Alining silhouettes and' sights (second sighting 

and aiming exercise) 56 58 

Ammunition 39, 102, 204,49, 103, 178 

Ballistic data 46 52 

Care, handling, and preservation 44 51 

Classification 40 49 

Grade 42 49 

Identification 43 50 

Lot number 41 49 

Storage 45 51 

Antiaircraft fire, technique 127 118 

individual 130 lie 

Application of fire 175,223 169,198 

Assault fire 177,225 161,198 

Posltaon 62 66 

Assembling magazine 10 11 

Assembling rifle 9 9 

Assistant instructors 201 176 

Automatic Are and replacing magazines (fourth 

lecture) 211 1&7 

Automatic fire exercise 66 70 

Automatic rifle fire, effect 222 198 

Ballistic data 46 52 

Beaten zone 171 157 

Buffer and rate-reducing mechanism, functioning. 21 29 

Bullets, tracer 163 150 

Care and cleaning of rifle 13 19 

Care in disassembling and assembling 6 3 

Care of ammunition 44 51 

Change lever, to set 23,30 33,38 

Classes of fire 172 159 

Classification of ammunition 40 49 

Coaches, duties 54 66 

Coaching . 80 90 

Prohibited 98 102 

Concentrated fire 176 160 

Conduct of training 198 175 

Courses, marksmanship 75 82 

Courses to be fired 142 131 

Critique 195 172 

Cycle of functioning 19 23 

Description 20 24 

Danger space 168 157 

Definitions 152 145 

201 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Delivery of fire 131 119 

Demonstration of trajectories 174 159 

Demonstrations 207 181 

Description: 

Functioning cycle 20 24 

Miniature range 215 189 

Rifle 2 l 

Target 184 164 

Determine zero of rifle 82 91 

Disassembling — 

Magazine 12 13 

Rifle 8 4 

Dispersion 169 157 

Distributed fire -..__ 176 160 

Dummy cartridges, use 17,25,78 22,36,90 

Duties : 

Coaches 54 56 

Leaders 52,182 55,163 

Effect: 

Automatic rifle fire 222 198 

Fire 173 158 

Wind and light (fifth lecture) 212 187 

Elevation 69 74 

Equipment 51,202 54,177 

Estimation by eye 159 147 

Examination 72 74 

Exercises 166, 190 154, 169 

Aiming and leading (second step) 135 123 

Automatic lire 66 70 

Position 58 60 

First step 134 123 

Preparatory 133,216 121,190 

Replacing magazines 67 71 

Sequence 88 96 

Sight setting 63 68 

Sight setting and aiming 64 68 

Sighting and aiming 55-57,64 57-59,68 

Situations for firing 194 172 

Suggested 1Q6 173 

Trigger manipulation 65 69 

Third step-. 136 124 

Explanation of zero 70 74 

Extractor, to remove and replace -without disassem- 
bling 11 12 

Field target firing 191,226 170,199 

Scope of training 192 170 

Fifth lecture (effect of wind and light; sight 

changes; score hook) . 212 1.37 

Fire: 

Application , 175,223 160,198 

Assault-, 177,225 161,198 

Classes 172 159 

Concentrated and distributed 176 160 

Control , 180 161 

Delivery 131 119 

202 



INDEX 

Fire— Continued. Paragraph Page 

Discipline . . 179 161 

Effect 173 159 

Automatic rifle 222 198 

Importance of rifle 153 145 ■ 

Observation 158 146 

Orders 87, 181 98, 162 

Rate 178 161 

Technique 219 195 

Fire power of rifle 3 ' 1 

Fire rifle 29 37 

Firer, shelter f or 100 102 

Firing: 

Exercises, situation for 194 172 

Field target 191,228 170,199 

Group 140 130 

Instruction ._ 139 129 

Landscape target 224 196 

Miniature range 217 191 

On wrong target 111 104 

Procedure 144, 188 133, 163 

With time limit 96 100 

Without time limit 95 99 

Sequence 74 82 

Towed target 141,218 131,192 

Firing line, organization , 92 98 

Firing pin, to remove without disassembling 10 11 

Firing points 79 90 

First lecture (sighting: and aiming) 208 181 

First sighting and aiming exercise (sighting bar) — 55 57 

First step (position exercises)--.. 134 123 

Fouling shots 106 103 

Fourth lecture (automatic fire and replacing 

magazines) 211 187 

Front sight, to aline 81 91 

Functioning of — 

Buffer and rate reducing mechanism • 21 29 

Bine 16 22 

Mechanical means 18 22 

Trigger mechanism 22 32' 

Fundamentals, marksmanship, moving ground 

targets 120 112 

Fundamentals of training 48 53 

Gas adjustment , 31 38 

Gloves , 1QB- 103 

Grade of ammunition 42 49 

Group firing 140 130 

Gun sling 104 103 

Handling qf ammunition 44 51 

Identification of ammunition 43 B0 

Immediate action 34-. 40 



203 



INDEX 

importance Of— Paragraph Page 

Landscape target firing 183 164. 

Range estimation 155 146 

Rifle fire 153 146 

Target designation 160 149 

Inspection of rifles 203 177 

Instruction : 

Method 53 56 

Scope 154 145 

Instruction firing 139 129 

Instruction practice: 

On Known-distance range 84 93 

On 1,000-inch range 83 92 

Instruction to pilots for towing missions 150 138 

Instructors, assistant 201 176 

Instruments, use . - 99 102 

Interrupted score 108 103 

Kneeling 1 position 61 66 

Landscape target firing 224 198 

Scope and importance 183 164 

Weapons to be used 185 164 

Leaders, duties 52,182 55,163 

Leads 128 119 

Lectures 207 181 

Sighting and aiming 208 181 

Load — 

Magazine 26 36 

Rifle 27 36 

Lot number of ammunition 41 49 

Magazine: 

Disassembly and assembly 12 13 

To load 26 36 

Magazines, exercises in replacing 67 71 

MaMng shot groups < third sighting and aiming 

exercise) 57 59 

Marking 94 09 

Marksmanship: 

Courses 75 82 

Moving ground targets 119 112 

Preliminary preparation, air targets 214 189 

Training 132,200 120,176 

Mechanical means of functioning 18 22 

Methods of — 

Instruction 53 56 

Range estimation 156 146 

Target designation . 162 149 

Miniature range 147 135 

Description 215 189 

Firing 217 lei 

Practice 137 128 

Misses 109 103 

Model schedules 206 180 

Moving personnel, method of aiming at 123 114 

Moving targets and ranges 124 114 

204 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Moving vehicles 122 113 

Place in training 121 113 

Naturei of trajectory 167 157 

Nomenclature 7 4 

Object of range practice 73 81 

Observation of fire 158 146 

Operation of rifle 24 36 

Oral target designation 165 150 

Organization 5 3 

Of firing line 92 98 

Of work 205 178 

On the range 77 88 

Pads-- „ 103 103 

Phases of training 49 53 

Pointing 164 150 

Position : 

Assault Are 62 66 

Kneeling el 66 

Prone, with bipod rest 59 64 

Second lecture 209 183 

Bitting 60 65 

Position exercises 58 60 

First step 134 123 

Position stoppage set-ups 199 175 

Precautions: 

Range 125 117 

Safety 32,85,138,143,193 39,94, 

128, 132, 171 

Preliminary preparation, marksmanship, air targets.. 214 189 

Preparation of targets 186 165 

Preparatory exercises 133,310 121 

Preparatory marksmanship training 50 54 

Preservation of ammunition „ 44 51 

Procedure in firing 144,188 133,168 

With time limit 96 100 

Without time limit 95 99 

Prone position with bipod rest 59 64 

Purpose of advice to- instructors 197 175 

Eange: 

Estimation 220 195 

Importance 155 146 

Method* 156 146 

Miniature 147 135 

Officer , 148 134 

Practice 76 88 

Object and scope 73 81 

Sixth lecture 213 189 

Precautions 125 117 

Towed target 148 138 

Ranges 118 107 

Moving 124 114 

350606°— 40 14 205 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page- 
Bate of Are 178 161 

Record practice: 

Course D, 1,000-Inch range 116 104 

Regulations governing 86 96 

Replacing magazines, exercises in 67 71 

Restrictions as to rifle 101 103 

Rifle: 

To Are 29 37 

To load . 37 36 

To unload . 28 37 

Rifles: 

Inspection 203 177 

Zerojng-ln 187 167 

Remove and replace extractor -without disassem- 
bling 11 12 

Remove firing pin without disassembling 10 11 

Rules for care of rifle 14 20 

Safety precautions 33,85,133,143,193 39,94, 

128, 132, 171 

Schedules, model 206 180 

Scope of — 

Instruction . 154 145 

Landscape target firing 183 163 

Range practice 73 81 

Training, field target firing : 192 170 

Score book 71 74 

Fifth lecture . 212 187 

Score interrupted 108 103 

Score cards and scoring 93 98 

Scoring 93,145,189 98,134, 

168 

Second lecture (position) 209 183 

Second sighting and aiming exercise (alining sil- 
houettes and sights) 56 58 

Second step (aiming and leading exercises) 135 123 

Sequence of exercises 88 96 

Sequence of firing-.^ 74 82 

Setting change lever 23,30 33,38 

Shelter for nrer 100 102 

Shot groups 170 157 

Shots: 

Cutting edge of silhouette or line 107 103 

More than prescribed in time limit 115 104 

To be included in score 110 104 

Warming, fouling, and sighting 106 103 

Sight changes (fifth lecture) 212 187 

Sight setting and aiming exercise 64 68 

Sight setting exercises . 63 68 

Sighting and aiming (first lecture) 208 181 

Sighting and aiming exercises w __ 55-57, 65 57-59, 69 

Sighting bar (first sighting and aiming exercise) ._ 55 57 

Sighting shots 106 103 

Signals 151 140 



206 



index: 

Paragraph Page 

Sitting position 60 66 

Situations for firing exercises 194 172 

Uxth lecture (range practice) 213 189 

pare parts 37 46 

toppagas 35,89 40,96 

Table 36 42 

torage: 

Ammunition 45 51 

Rifles 15 21 

iggested exercises 196 173 

'ble of stoppages 36 42 

'rget: 

Description 184 164 

Designation 129,221 119,197 

Importance 160 149 

Methods 162 1*S 

Oral 165 150 

Details 91 97 

Firing on wrong 111 104 

More shots than prescribes 115 104 

Two shots on same 112 104 

Withdrawing prematurely 113 104 

Tijets 117 107 

Air 126 118 

Men marking 90 97 

Moving 124 114 

Preparation 186 165 

Tiinique of antiaircraft fire 127 118 

Individual 130 119 

Teinique of fire 219 195 

Tephones, use 97 102 

ltd lecture (trigger manipulation) 210 185 

TTrd sighting and aiming exercise (making Ehot 

pups) 57 59 

Tlrd step (trigger manipulation exercises) 136 124 

Tcographical terms 161 149 

Toed target — 

Firing. 141,218 131,192 

Range 148 138 

Toad targets 149 138 

Tolng missions, instruction to' pilots for 150 138 

Tragr bullets 163 150 

Use 157 146 

Traiing : 

Conduct 198 175 

n disassembly and assembly 4 3 

n fundamentals 48 53 

Marksmanship 132,200 120,176 

'hases 49 53 

Scope of, Held target firing 192 170 

Trajctories, demonstration 174 159 

Trajctory, nature 167 157 

Triggr manipulation (third lecture) 210 185 

Triger manipulation exercise 65 6B 

^hlrtj step 136 124 

207 



INDEX 

Paragraph Pa 

Trigger mechanism, functioning 22 

Two shots on same target 112 1 

Unflred cartridges 114 1 

Unload rifle 28 r 

Use of— 

Dummy cartridges 17,25,7a 22,363 

Instruments 99 2 

Telephones 97 2 

Tracer bullets 157 6 

Warming shots 106 B 

Wind and light, effect of (fifth lecture) 212 17 

Windage 68 73 

Withdrawing target prematurely. „ ; 113 34 

WorK, organization 205 78 

Zero, explanation 70 74 

Zero of rifle, to determine 82 91 

Zeroing-in of rifles 187 167 



o 



208 



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