The Invention of the .22 Long Rifle Cartridge

   The .22 long rifle is the most popular and widely produced firearm ever. The reasons for it's popularity are numerous but I think the main one is they are just pain fun to shoot. And given the fact both the ammo and gun are so affordable this makes it the ideal gun for plinking or small game hunting. But where did this awesome cartridge come from? 
.22 RF Bullet Round

   The earliest beginnings of this little cartridge can be traced back to its even smaller predecessors and probably owe a lot to Smith and Wesson. The earliest .22 caliber rimfire cartridge was the Flobert 22 BB cap and was initially created  by pressing a .22 caliber round ball into a rimmed version of a percussion musket priming cap. This cartridge was first introduced in 1845. These were used primarily in "Parlor" or gallery rifles and pistols which were actually used for indoor target practice and recreation, much like a dart board game would be used today. At some point these fell out of favor for indoor use probably after some unlucky participant put his eye out or  damaged the parlor decor. Think of them as the Yard Darts of the 19th century. They were also used for killing "small pests" which either means small rats or large roaches, that must have been great fun! No need to leave the house for the thrill of the hunt just sit in the "parlor" and wait for some unlucky vermin to come along. I wonder if they ever baited the field with a bit of cheese or bread crumbs. Or if you really insisted on going out of doors there was always the veggie patch where you might even bring down a crow or take out a small bunny with a well placed shot. You'd probably just put his eye out though. Okay that's the last Christmas Story reference I promise. 
.22 BB Flobert Parlor Gun Advertisment 6mm

   As the parlor gun craze was drawing to an end in rides Smith and Wesson to the rescue. In 1857 the .22 short was developed specifically for the first Smith and Wesson revolver the Model 1. The new .22 short had a longer case than the 22 BB and packed a whopping 4 grains of black powder. The projectile was also redesigned to have a conical shape and flat bottom. 

Smith and Wesson S&W First Pistol

   In 1871 the .22 long cartridge was introduced in an effort to provide a little more powerful pistol round than the .22 short. The cartridge case was lengthened and another 2 grains of powder added, the projectile remained the same. The .22 long was well received and soon rifles were also being chambered in the round for use in small game hunting. 

   In 1880 the 22 Extra long cartridge or 22-7-45 was brought to the market to provide and even more effective small game rifle round. This cartridge had a much longer case length and used a 45 grain conical projectile with a 7 grain charge of black powder. There were problems reported with this round quickly fouling up rifle barrels and it never gained popularity. No rifles were manufactured in this chamber after 1916 and the ammo was dropped from production around 1935.

.22 BB, .22 Short, .22 Long .22 Long Rifle Chart Comparison
L-R .22 BB, .22 Short, .22 Long .22 Long Rifle
   In 1887 J. Steven Arms & Tool Company developed the 22 Long Rifle cartridge. It was based on the .22 long cartridge case but replaced the 29 grain projectile with a 40 grain conical and used 5 grains of fine black powder. Stevens also concluded the heavier projectile would preform better at a faster rifling twist rate and provided this in their rifles. The results were the most miraculously popular cartridge of ammunition ever conceived.

   Riding on the .22 LR coattails with varying success were three other descendants of the .22 family. The longer and more powerful .22 Winchester Rimfire or WRF was introduced in 1890 along with its twin the 22 Remington Special. The advent of the high velocity .22 LR cartridge using more efficient cleaner burning powder pretty much killed the .22 WMR as it eliminated the advantages of the longer case. The sheer number of .22 LR chambered firearms and the fact they were cheaper also contributed to the WRF demise. In 1959 Winchester introduced the 22 Rim Fire Magnum which was a success and filled a niche for people who needed something a little more powerful for medium size game. 

   Today the .22 rimfire still remains king of the small caliber realm. Even the recent shortages couldn't lessen it's appeal. If anything it only highlighted it's popularity when people panicked at the very thought of running out of it. I think this is one round that's here to stay.

Gimmick and Fad Ammo...or Innovation

   Gimmick Ammo to me is kind of like those fishing lures that are designed more to attract the hapless angler than the fish. But like the fishing lures a few of them turn out to be real innovations and advancements in the field. Only time tells which category most of these new fad thing-a-ma-jiggys fall into.

   There has been a lot of talk and hype about this new R.I.P. ammo and it set me to thinking of some of the other memorable wacky ideas that have come along over the years, you know like those silly hollow pointed bullets and smokeless powder. Seriously here's some winners and losers and some you'll have to judge for yourself.
RIP Ammo 9 mm .45 etc
R.I.P. ammo "will cut through human tissue like a “hole saw.”" ..only time will tell. It looks like it might be a nightmare feed for any finicky semi-autos. And of course these will be an easy point of criticism from the anti-gunners..., can anyone say Black Talon?

Jihawg Pigs Blood Infused Ammo

Jihawg Ammo "PEACE THROUGH PORK!" Well... you'll just have to visit there website! The bullets are infused with pork to fight terrorists through their fear of "unclean" swine. Namely the effects being tainted with their blood might have on the number and quality of Virgins waiting on them after the double tap.

Z-Max Zombie Ammo

Z-Max Zombie Ammo, yes we've all bought into this one, a genius marketing move by Hornady back in the days when ammo sales were slow. These are just fun, but course you never know. Better safe than sorry!

Aguila Minishell shotshells


 Aguila Minishell shotshells are only 1-3/4" long but will almost double the capacity of your shotgun! Nifty idea right? I guess so but I haven't  been adventurous enough to try these yet. Opinions are all over the place on these.

The Dardick Tround Ammo and GunThe Dardick Tround was a  triangular cartridge that was used in a magazine fed revolver called the Dardick 1500. They were said to be “versatile as a six-armed monkey” Well maybe but I never really had much need for a six armed monkey either. The pistol could be converted from a .38 to .30 or .22 caliber, converted into a rifle, and could also use standard round ammunition through the use of an adapter. The open cylinder chambers made the gun lighter and faster than a standard revolver. Unfortunately it was never really accepted by the general public and very few were ever produced, would've been a good investment though considering the collectors value today! 

UPDATED: I ran across some new ammo that may fall in to the "fad" classification or could turn out to be truly innovative. Only time will tell, here are some new offerings I have found in 2019.

STREAK’s patented formulation incorporates a non-flammable phosphor material that utilizes the light emitted during discharging of the round to make STREAK glow. The manufacturer states: “STREAK is not on fire and does not generate heat, therefor making STREAK safe for indoor range use where the illumination is best seen.”

New Streak Next Gen Tracer Ammo Night Ops

In Search of The Ultimate EDC Knife

   A “nice” pocket knife is something I always wanted but never really bought myself. Sure I have bought a lot of knives over the years but they were all on the low end of the cost scale. Some of those cheap ones have been good ones. I have been carrying the same old Gerber para-frame for about six years now and it was used when I got it. It has been a very good knife and has served me well. It is still a solid tool and it locks up tight and straight and keeps a decent edge. There is also the advantage of not having to worry too much about using it for rough, possibly damage inflecting duty. I guess have just reached the point in my life where I feel I can finally treat myself to a “nice” everyday carry  knife, but what to buy? Thus began my quest for the ultimate EDC folding knife. 
Gerber Paraframe and Benchmade Griptilian 551 Knife
Top Benchmade Griptilian 551 Bottom: Gerber Paraframe
   As a youth back in the 90’s I bought a lot of the knife magazines and always lusted after the high end brands. Still I couldn’t bring myself to spend $100 plus on a knife. A lot of the manufacturers that were on the “high end” back then  are the same ones churning out the mass produced unbelievably low priced knives found at Walmart and other bargain retailers. A lot of them seem to have sold out their brands in the name of profit. Don’t get me wrong I’m sure a lot of them are good knives but the names do not command the respect the way they used to. Most still make their high price knives in the USA and contract out the diluted lower end models out to China. SOG is one that comes to mind because I remember them being way out of my price range but super high quality back then. Now you can pick one up for twenty bucks a Wally World.

   Over the past month or so I have done a lot of research and listened to a lot of opinions and preferences. Two of the brands that rose to the top consistently were Benchmade and Spyderco. Also both these companies seemed to have maintained their good names quite respectively. Kershaw also had some really nice highly reviewed models in their massive lineup. There were also some new manufacturers such as Ontario knives and Zero Tolerance that are giving the establishment a run for their money. I would probably fall in love with Spyderco if I ever tried one but there’s something about the thumb hole look that I never liked from a purely aesthetic opinion. Also there are so many cheap imitations of Spydercos out there I think it has skewed my intuitive opinion of them. People who like Spyderco REALLY like Spyderco, they almost have a cult following. It reminds me of the some way people are so devoted to Apple products.  I always thought the obsessively single brand minded Apple users were nuts until I actually owned an Apple product and wondered why I hadn't drank that Kool-Aid long ago! Anyway I am still not feeling that warm and fuzzy for the king of thumb-holes  yet. 

  After all was said and done I finally narrowed it down to one knife that seemed to be the either number one or close to it on most knife guys lists of EDC favorites, the Benchmade Griptilian. I also liked the lifetime free sharpening and cleaning service offered on all Benchmade products since I had never mastered that art. I wanted something close to the size of my old Gerber so the full size Griptilian model fit the bill. At $102.00 it was not the highest price range but still seemed to compete or defeat most of the two to three hundred dollar models. The only contention I saw for some people was the glass-filled nylon grips. For me Glock had long ago dispelled any aversion I might have had to "plastic" parts. Even before that my Remington Nylon 66 had been as tough or better than any of my wood stocked guns and was less likely to crack like the wood ones had a tendency to do. 

   I ordered the Griptilian from Amazon and while the knife shopping bug had bit me I decided to try a couple of the close contenders that were significantly lower in price and would make good benchmark comparisons to the Griptilian. I Ordered the Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet Pocket Knife ($17.27) and the Ontario 8848 RAT Folding Knife ($27.03). Both of these had gotten stellar reviews as well.

   I received all three knives earlier this week and thus far all three are really solid knives with a quality feel and action.  As far as long term use, edge retention, etc. I will keep an update on here as time goes on and I have a chance to carry all three for a while but here are some first impressions. The Benchmade came in a nice box with a little velvet storage bag. The Ontario came in a lighter weight box and the Kershaw was in a clear plastic "blister" pack. I think the Benchmade may be the sharpest out of the box of the three but all came really sharp. I also think size and looks-wise the Benchmade beats out the other three for me but only marginally so. All three fit the hand pretty well. The Griptillian has excellent ergonomics and grip characteristics as the name would imply. The Ontario RAT has a flatter more basic grip but it is very substantial and sturdy and holding it feels like you are holding a nice fixed blade knife. The weight of it is a little more also. The one down side for me I did notice with the Ontario was it has an open post design along the bottom of the handle which is supposed to be for easy cleaning. The Gerber Paraframe also had an open post design however I noticed if I carried it in my pocket with loose change the coins would sometimes get stuck between the posts which in turn meant edge of the coins would rub against the bottom of the blade and dull the edge. I had to be careful how I carried it and will have to do the same with the Ontario. The Griptillian opens very smooth but is not an "assisted " opener. The only assisted opener of the three is the Kershaw. With a little practice you can open the other two just as quickly using the thumb stud but you have to be careful with your finger placement. The Kershaw opens by pressing a small lever on bottom but it was really tight and a hard to press right out of the box. Once you get it activated it opens quick and smooth. I think it will loosen up and open easier after a little bit of use. I found that the Griptillian can be opened with the flick of the wrist but I think doing so might be a little rough on the locking mechanism with the force of opening it that way. As far as closing the Griptillian is the easiest to manipulate one handed. You just pull the button down with your thumb while pressing on the top of the blade with your index finger. The other two I find myself pushing the back of the blade on the side of my thigh while pressing the lock to close like I used to do with my old Gerber. This frame lock mechanism on the Ontario and Kershaw is simple but reliable and the Griptilian uses Benchmade’s axis lock which is also well proven. Pocket clips are changeable for lefties on all and the Ontario has two extra mounting options at the opposite end of the knife. The pocket clip on the Kershaw was so tight I couldn't get it on my pocket, I will have to try and pry it out a little.
Below are some pictures for visual and size comparison as well as specs for each knife.
Side By Side Picture Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet Vs Benchmade - Griptillian 551 Knife Drop-Point Vs The Ontario 8848 RAT
Top: Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet,  Middle: Benchmade - Griptilian 551 Knife Drop-Point, Bottom: The Ontario 8848 RAT
Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet Pocket KnifeSpeedSafe assisted opening; Liner lock
Steel: 8Cr13MoV, satin finish
Handle: Glass-filled nylon; Blade length: 3.1 in. (7.9 cm)
Closed length: 4.1 in. (10.5 cm); Overall length: 7.25 in. (18.4 cm)
Weight: 3.2 oz. (90.7 g

Benchmade 551 Griptilian Plain Drop-Point Satin Finish Knife (Black Nylon Handle)
3.45" (8.76cm) Drop-point style blade, Closed length 3.87 in
weight 3.88oz (110.00g). 
American Made Steel: 154CM (58-61HRC) 
Handle: Injection molded, GFN (Glass Filled Nylon) 

Ontario 8848 RAT Folding Knife (Black)
Made of AUS-8 Steel
3.5 inch plain edge blade
Knife Closed Length: 4.5-Inch
Knife Open Length: 8.5-Inch
Weighs 5 oz.
Size Compared Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet Vs The Benchmade - Griptilian 551 Knife Drop-Point Vs The Ontario 8848 RAT
Top: Kershaw OSO Sweet,  Middle: Benchmade Griptilian 551, Bottom: The Ontario RAT

Left: The Ontario 8848 RAT, Middle: Benchmade - Griptilian 551 Knife/ Drop-Point, Right: Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet
Left: The Ontario 8848 RAT, Middle: Benchmade - Griptilian 551 Knife/ Drop-Point, Right: Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet 
Kershaw 1830 OSO Sweet Vs The Benchmade - Griptilian 551 Knife in Drop-Point Vs The Ontario 8848 RAT
Bottom: Kershaw OSO Sweet,  Middle: Benchmade Griptilian 551, Top: The Ontario RAT
There is also an excellent review on the Benchmade Griptillian and a lot of other knives at

A Centennial 1876 Revolver With A Tall Tale

Pat Garrett
Okay everyone loves a good story right? Well here's the one I was told on this pistol.
   I purchased it from a gentleman in Louisiana near the town of Homer. Homer is where Pat Garrett's Family lived and the location of their family farm. For those who don't remember, Pat Garrett was a legendary lawman of the Wild West famous for shooting Billy The Kid.
   The story is Pat Garrett gave that this little Freeman W Hood, 1876 Centennial revolver to his little brother Alfred Jarvis Garrett along with another little pinfire pistol for his 21st birthday. Alfred left it to his son who later sold it to the grandfather of the person I bought it from. After that it was passed down as a family heirloom along with the story.
Centennial 1876 Revolver
  The person I purchased it from seemed to genuinely believe the story. The only problem is how can I possibly ever really verify that all this is true? It's not like a Smith and Wesson where you can write the factory for a record of who purchased it and where. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! Also see the video here.

Kid With a Gun : Gun Control and Traditional American Values

United States Rifle, Caliber .30-06, Model 1903
United States Rifle, Caliber .30-06, Model 1903
   I have always been a gun enthusiast and these days I collect mostly older military rifles and pistols, looking for relics of the past intrigues me. I mostly have pieces from WWI, WWII, and the Wild West.  These are the weapons that helped forge our nation and protected our way of life. Without these tools of liberty there would be no America. The craftsmanship and ingenuity involved in making these guns is an art form. The lives of the brave sons and daughters who fought for our nation relied on the genius of their design and the quality of their workmanship.

   My tastes weren't always so symbolic. Ever since I was a kid and graduated from an air gun to my first .22 rifle and shotgun I have been interested in firearms and shooting. I grew up in the rural Moreland, Georgia and hunting and shooting was just a normal and almost required part of every young boy’s life. I think I got my first .22 rifle for Christmas when I was maybe 13 or 14 and it was my constant companion on my daily treks into the woods. It was an inexpensive FIE copy of the Remington Nylon 66, I think it came from Otasco or maybe K-mart. The next year of course I had to have a shotgun to keep it company, it was an old Deerfield 20 gauge pump my father found at a pawn shop, but it functioned flawlessly. I always kept them both loaded in my closet in case we were invaded by those pesky Russians or a gang of outlaws. Times were different then and nobody thought anything much of kids owning firearms. Of course the adults constantly drilled the safety rules into our heads at every opportunity and made sure we were instilled with enough sense and morals to be trusted with one. The latter lesson was the more challenging and time consuming part but parents did it because as parents that was their job and responsibility. It was a job not to be taken lightly and involving sacrifice and commitment.

Model 1897 Winchester Pump Shotgun
Model 1897
   I used to go “hunting” a lot which was really just an excuse to get dressed in camo and explore the forest with my friends or on a solo adventure. I never really shot a lot of game; pine cones and mistletoe were my favorite quarry.  Of course I had that one friend who wanted to shoot everything that moved, snake, squirrel, lizard, blue jays…. Fortunately for them he wasn’t a very good shot. There was no need for recycling as any tin can or milk jug we got a hold of was shot up until it was reduced back to its base minerals and redistributed throughout the countryside. Maybe it wasn’t as cool as playing Grand Theft Auto or watching trash TV, but it got us out of the house. We got lots of fresh air and we learned responsibility, marksmanship, and camaraderie. We also picked up a lot of knowledge of nature and the world around us off the beaten path. We learned the importance of cleaning and maintaining our weapons and to respect other peoples land.

    For boys pocket knives were a necessity at school in case you needed to cut something for your teacher and of course as a last line of defense against perverts, ninjas, or parachuting commies. Seriously those were the days of the Atlanta child murders and we were just a stone’s throw down the road from there.  Common sense told you a sharp blade would probably be more useful in fending off an attacker than one of those plastic whistles they used to give us.  Those events were splashed all over the local channels on the evening news which was required viewing back then for most families. It instilled fear in parents and kids alike and was maybe my first memory of senseless violence and of murder for no reason. Something that has become all too common place in today’s society.

   “Zero Tolerance” hadn't been invented yet. People and events were actually judged individually on their own merit and with common sense. You were also allowed to have personal values and express them without ridicule. We had heroes and celebrities we looked up to. Not because they were outrageous or did crazy stuff but because they were good honest people and they did good things. People who worked hard and were rewarded for their efforts were respected and looked up to. You didn't have to be afraid to have an opinion or take a stand on something you believed in.  Things have changed and somewhere along the way we lost our perspective and took a wrong turn onto a very dark path.

   If we as a society and a nation think we can’t trust our citizens to have firearms then there is something desperately wrong that has nothing to do with gun control. Add to this the fact that our government passes out weapons to the barbarians in the middle east and other volatile regions like they were government cheese and it doesn't take a genius to figure out there’s a problem. Most of these people would just as soon kill us as they would shoot the other idiots they are fighting. Our commander in chief is more like the celebrity in charge. Washington’s “leadership style” has become a joke and an embarrassment.  It’s a constant game of, what can we talk these idiots into believing this week. The task of diverting attention from their own screw ups without taking any responsibility for anything is also time a consuming endeavor. And of course they have to figure out how to best use the latest savage’s senseless actions to further their own idiotic agenda. Most of the news media are the ultimate enablers acting more like publicist and promoters for their favored politicians and twisted agendas.

     Looking closer to home a strong family structure is almost non-existent these days. The Leave It to Beaver Days of family values and parental role models are all but over. Kids are often left to learn their “values” from TV, video games and music. More often than not what they learn is to do whatever you feel like and you are entitled to be happy and be provided for. And bad behavior is often not only tolerated but rewarded. Anyone who tries to tell you otherwise is either a racist, bigot, or just clinging to their foolish religion. Of course “foolish religion” translates into Christianity, all the other religions are free from ridicule and anyone who criticizes or dares to disagree with them is horrible and prejudice.

   What does all this have to do with the gun control movement? The point is guns or even gun control is not the problem at all. We need search a lot deeper if we ever hope to find answers to what’s wrong with our country and why senseless violence has become so commonplace. Maybe we need to look to the common sense, beliefs and values of our past. Whether you are a Christian or not, our entire society, our system of values, respect for ourselves and others and the respect for human life is all based on Christian beliefs and the Bible. Without having these foundations in our past we would have nothing and without them today and in the future soon we may be left with nothing.                                                                                                                                                                                               Anthony Cox
Here's an interesting footnote to this story. I regularly publish articles on the Yahoo Contributor Network and this article was the first one they ever rejected. Yahoo tends to be extremely liberal, and they love Obama worshiping articles. Here was the response I got from them on my publishing this article.   "Thank you for your submission. Unfortunately, we cannot publish this content, because it contains language, references or ideas deemed inappropriate by Yahoo Contributor Network" Thanks for proving my point Yahoo!

Antique Firearms Classification Explained

   In the United States any weapon manufactured prior to1899 is usually considered an antique. These firearms receive special exceptions to federal regulations. Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK also have similar exceptions though the year of manufacture cut off varies slightly. The threshold is pre-1898 in Canada, and pre-1901 in Australia. England has exemptions for certain antiques but no specific year based cut off. Here are the exact guidelines from the United States Code for a firearm to be classified as an antique. 

18 U.S.C., § 921(A)(16)

The term “Antique Firearm” means:
Antique Firearms PictureA. Any firearm (including any firearm with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system) manufactured in or before 1898; and is not designed or redesigned for using rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition, or uses rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition which is no longer manufactured in the United States and which is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade.
C.  Any muzzle loading rifle, muzzle loading shotgun, or muzzle loading pistol, which is designed to use black powder, or black powder substitute, and which cannot use fixed ammunition. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term antique firearm shall not include any weapon which includes a firearm frame or receiver, any firearm which is converted into a muzzle loading weapon, or any muzzle loading weapon which can be readily converted to fire fixed ammunition by replacing the barrel, bolt, breechblock or any combination thereof.
The NFA also dictates that “The term “firearm” shall not include an antique firearm..."26 U.S.C. § 5845(a).

   That whole “fixed ammo/ readily available” part is the source of a lot of confusion. One could argue that none of these weapons was designed to shoot modern ammo; almost all were based on black powder loads which are not readily available. Luckily to save the confusion a hair splitting the ATF has determined that any firearm made in or before 1898 is an antique, and not subject to the provisions of the gun control act of 1968, or the NFA. The only exceptions are machine guns, short barreled shotguns and rifles, and “destructive devices”. And of course the term “destructive device requires another set of inclusive specifications listed below. Keep in mind that like any other law it depends on what enforcement Officer or Official you ask. There is always a little room for interpretation and a lot of room for ignorance and preferential or selective enforcement. 

For the purposes of the National Firearms Act, the term “Destructive Device” means:
  • A missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than 1/4 oz. 
  • Any type of weapon by whatever name known which will, or which may readily be converted to expel a projectile, by the action of an explosive or other propellant, the barrel or barrels of which have a bore greater than one-half inch in diameter. 
  • A combination of parts designed and intended for use in converting a device into a destructive device and from which a destructive device can be readily assembled.
   Antique firearms are used primarily for collection and display purposes. The ones that are designed for cartridge type ammunition are designed for use with black powder loads which produce less pressure and therefore do not require the metal to be as hardened and strong as a modern firearm. Plus they are over 100 years old! For these reasons anyone who is planning on firing an antique firearm should use only black powder loads.  The firearm should also be thoroughly checked out by a gunsmith.  This is not to say that all of these guns are unsafe to shoot, in fact some are probably as good or better quality than ones you would buy in a store today. A lot of people shoot their antique guns on a regular basis and I’m sure some are still used for hunting or self-defense.  I use to carry and old Smith and Wesson model 1 ½ as my truck gun. 

Antique Firearms Collection
   One of the biggest benefits of collecting antique firearms is they are no longer even considered as firearms under law by the ATF and NFA. This means they have no jurisdiction over them and cannot control their sale, possession or transport. For you as a collector this is a huge advantage because you can buy them without any licensing requirements or background checks. No ATF forms to fill out or red tape to go through. You can also have them shipped directly to your house or ship them directly to your buyer using any shipping method you choose. I have received many antique revolvers in USPS flat rate mailing boxes right in the mailbox.  Of course you want to check your state and local laws regarding this but most or all state laws mirror or reference the above definition and do not regulate their sale or transport.  Of course I would recommend some self-imposed common sense guidelines when selling or shipping. I require a proof of age and photo ID to be sure that the person is at least 18. I would also NEVER ship a loaded weapon or even ship a weapon in the same container as ammunition.  I make sure I communicate to the buyer that it is their responsibility to be sure they can legally possess such an antique.  I also make sure I include in communications the following … “This Antique firearm is sold for collection and display purposes only. It should be thoroughly inspected for safety by a competent and qualified gunsmith if you plan on firing it. Ammo should also be verified by the gunsmith to ensure it is of the proper chambering and powder type”.

   Not all firearms of course have a date of manufacture stamped on them so sometimes you will have to research to find if a certain piece was manufactured prior to 1889.  Some models were all manufactured pre-1889 and some you have to know the serial number range to determine if it qualifies. There is a handy list of a lot of popular firearm models I found on the Empire Arms website HERE , it was compiled by James Wesley Rawles. He also has a handy Q&A on Antique firearms qualifications that may cover some things I did not cover in this article.