Complete Visual Guide To Assault Rifle Ammunition

A visual picture collection showing a near-complete selection of all military assault rifle ammo rounds. Note: Scale varies from picture to picture. Many of these never made it past the experimental stages.

Experimental US flechette rounds: 5.56x45 for scale, sectioned 5.6x44 XM216,  XM216 (Springfield/Frankford, second generation), 5.6x44 XM144 (Springfield/Frankford, first generation), 5.6x53B XM110 (AAI first generation), 5.6x57B XM645 (AAI second generation) - all part of the SPIW programme; .330 Amron Aerojet, 9.53x76R (both multiple flechettes)
.30-06,  .30 T65 (7.62x48), .280/30 (7x43), 7x49 Medium, 7x51 Compromise, 7.62x51

From left to right: 7.62x51 for scale, 6mm Lee, 5.2mm Mondragon, 5mm Sturtevant

The ACR rounds: Colt 5.56mm Duplex, AAI 5.56mm flechette, Steyr flechette, HK 4.7mm G11

Special loadings of service rounds: 7.62x51 M198 Duplex, .30'06 triplex, 7.62x51 salvo-squeezebore, 7.62x51 SLAP (Saboted Light Armor Penetrator) APDS

From left to right: .276 Enfield 1910 (7x60); 6.5mm Arisaka Type 38 (6.5x50SR); .276 Pedersen (7x51); .270 British (6.8x46); .280/30 British (7x43); 6.25mm British prototype (6.25x43); 6.25mm British proposed (6.25x46); 6mm SAW (6x45); 7.62mm NATO (7.62x51); 5.56mm NATO (5.56x45); 6.8mm Remington SPC (6.8x43); 6.5mm Grendel (6.5x38); 7mm UIAC (7x46); 7.62mm M1891 Mosin Nagant (7.62x54R); 7.62mm M1943 AK (7.62x39); 5.45mm AK74 (5.45x39); 5.8mm Chinese (5.8x42)
Above: some early semi-automatic rifles, from top to bottom: 1918 .303 Farquhar Hill; 1909 Mondragon (7.92mm); 1917 MAT Mk 1917; 1929 Czech Brno Z.H.29 (photo taken at MoD Defence Academy, Shrivenham)

Exotic ammo attempts: 5.56x45 with Monad bullet, 4.5mm Schirnecker, 9/4mm Kaltmann (development round, with part-metal case), 5.56mm Folded, 5.56mm Hughes Lockless, 5.56mm US caseless, 6mm Voere caseless, early HK G11 4.7x21 rounds, final G11 4.7x33
WW2 and after: .30 M1 Carbine, 9x35 Lahti, 9x40 Lilja, 7.92x33 Kurz7.62x39 AK, 7.5x45 Czech, 7.62x45 Czech, 7x36 Madsen/Otterup, 7.65x38 French,7.5x43 French CRBA, 7.62x38 Swiss, 7.92x40 CETME

Experimental cartridges under 6mm: FN 5.56x45 APDS, .12 US (3x47), 3.5x50 FN, 4.3x45 German, .17 US (4.3x46), 4.6x36 HK/CETME (with spoon-tip bullet), 4.85mm British, 5.56x38 FABRL, 5.6mm Eiger

Above: the full-power 7.9x57, 7.5x55, .30-06 and 7.62x51, shown next to the 7.62x39 and 5.56x45 which illustrate the most common FCAR and RCAR rounds respectively

The photo shows the 5.56x45 M855A1,  6.5x38 Grendel, 6.8x43 Remington SPC and 7.62x51 M80, with their bullets. Note the bullets beside the 5.56mm: the new M855A1 (with an exposed steel tip) has the lead core element replaced by copper, resulting in a significant increase in length to achieve the same weight as the SS109 next to it. The other bullets are all lead-cored; note the much more aerodynamic proportions of the 6.5mm compared with the others (especially the rather stubby 6.8mm)

SCHV rounds:   .22 APG, .22/30 Homologous (5.56x51), .25/30 Homologous (6.35x51), .27/30 Homologous (6.86x51), .224 Winchester E2, .25 Win FA-T 116 (6.35x48), .25 Win Duplex FA-T 127 (6.35x53), 5.56x45 M855, 5.45x39 AK74, 5.8x42 Chinese

 .30 Pedersen (7.65x20), .30 Mauser (7.63x25), 9x19 Parabellum, 9x25 Mauser, .45 Auto, .45 Remington-Thompson, 5.7x28 FN, 4.6x30 HK, 5.8x21 DAP-92.

Some experiments since the 1970s: 5.56x45 for scale, 6.5x43 German, 6.25x43 British, 6x45 SAW, 6x50 SAW aluminium-cased, 6x49 Russian Unified, 6.45x48 Swiss GP80

The photo above shows the .276 Pedersen, .270 British, 7x43 British, 7.62x51 NATO, 7x46 UIAC, and 6.5x38 Grendel

6.5x52 Italian, 6.5x50SR Japanese Type 30, 7.65x32 Mannlicher, .351 Winchester SL, .345 Machine Rifle, 8mm Ribeyrolles (replica)

LSAT 5.56mm and 7.62mm, next to the 5.56x45 and 7.62x51 (image courtesy of Textron)